Journal of ISLIS, Vol.20. No.2, 2002 English

Vol.20, 2002, September

Journal of International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS) 

Vol.20, No.2, 2002
ISSN 1341-9226


Human PSI Forum "Human Potential Science" International Forum
- Physical and Physiological Approach - 
joint with
"Mystery of Mind and Body" International Forum
and The Fourteenth Symposium on Life Information Science (International Version)
22-27 August 2002, OVTA, Makuhari, Chiba (near Tokyo), Japan

[ Proceedings ] Without Peer Review

Integrative Medicine - Towards the 21st Century -

Kazuhiko ATSUMI
Japanese Association for Alternative, Complementary and Traditional Medicine (JACT) (Tokyo, Japan)
After the end of the old science of the 20th century, the 21st century shows a new era focused on human coexistent relationship.  We need a new medical system, Integrative Medicine, beyond the gap between Eastern and Western medicine.  The new humanistic medical system should be constructed by harmonized collaboration with modern Western medicine and Alternative, Complementary & Traditional Medicine for success.
Keywords: integrative medical care, alternative, complementary & traditional (ACTM), modern Western medicine

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Using Ichiro’s Batting as an Analogy
Ryoichi OBITSU
Obitsu Sankei Hospital (Saitama, Japan)
The majority of complementary/alternative medicines (CAMs) approach the mind and spirit while Western medicine only focuses on the body.  It can be said that CAM is a methodology that empowers one’s life field.  The essential nature of CAM can be explained by the concept of “Salutogenesis,” which regards that we exist somewhere between the point of “healthy” and that of “ill.”  This is a totally different concept from that of western medicine, which tries to label us either as “healthy” or as “ill.”  We can go forward step by step with CAM while dreaming of a miracle, a complete cure from disease.  In this paper, we attempt to explain the fundamental nature of CAM by analogizing it with Ichiro’s batting, which always tries to make a single hit while not giving up on the chance of a home run.
complementary/alternative medicine (CAM), spirituality, salutogenesis, Ichiro’s batting, life field

Mind/Body Relationship in Total Healing
Sae-il CHUN
Pochon CHA University, Graduate School of Complementary Alternative Medicine (Seoul, Korea)
The ultimum goal of eliminating diseases and maintaining normal health is the same in both western (modern) medicine and oriental  (traditional) medicine. At the present time, western medicine tends to take a more scientific and  technological approach, while oriental medicine still maintains a more humanistic approach.  5000 year old traditional medicine still challenges the 21century scientific modern medicine in the field of clinical practices.  “Disease-oriented” western medicine classifies the human condition as “diseased and non-diseased” states. In the mean time, the “health-oriented” oriental medicine classifies it into “healthy and unhealthy” states.  For the maintenance of normal health, five principles are emphasized.  They are 1) eat right, 2) move right, 3) sleep right, 4) breathe right, and 5) mind right.  To reverse an unhealthy condition back to the normal healthy state, the methods of 1) natural substance therapy, 2) exercise therapy, and 3) stimulation therapies, which include acupuncture, moxibustion, finger pressure, and cupping techniques.  In order to eliminate diseases, four distinct approaches, namely 1) chemical, 2) physical, 3) psychological, and 4) surgical treatments, are utilized.  There are many different kinds of traditional medicine, hidden popular folk medicine, and various less recognized techniques and theories of healing arts. Some are originated in oriental culture, while others are originated in western culture.  Experts of western medicine claim that only that information clarified or proven by objective and scientific methodology can be recognized as a part of western (conventional) medicine. All other medical cares and health care modalities are collectively labelled as “alternative medicine or complementary medicine”.  According to the most recent definition of health by WHO, “total health should include physical, mental, psych-social, and spiritual well-being”.  Alternative medicine provides a wider range of methodologies to handle this new concept of total health.  Oriental medicine and alternative medicine share a common characteristics in that they adopt a humanistic approach to care for the whole person, that is to “heal a person” and not merely to “cure an organic disease”.  The mind consists of emotion, knowing, consciousness, intuition, and a soul factor, whereas the body consists of form, strength, energy field, vital force, and a genetic factor.  When all ten of these mind-body factors are in harmony and balance with each other, the healing mechanism is activated to its maximal level.  Accordingly, total health can be achieved only when they are in full harmony.
Keywords: mind body relationship, total healing, alternative medicine, spirits and medicine, structure of mind

Mental and Spiritual Healing: A Critical Review of the Science
Wayne B. JONAS, Cindy CRAWFORD and Ronald A. CHEZ
Samueli Institute for Information Biology (CA, USA)
This presentation will present the quantity and quality of scientific information in five central areasrelated to spiritual healing.  These include: 1) The Health Impact Of Religious And Spiritual Practices, 2) Intercessory Prayer and Healing Prayer, 3) Research on Mind-Matter Interactions (MMI), 4) Direct mental influence on living systems (DMILS), 5) Non-instrumental - "Energy" Healing methods, and 6) The Impact of Healing in a Clinical Setting.  Implications of these investigations for the future of spiritual healing, energy medicine and intentionality studies will be discussed.
Keywords: spiritual healing, complementary and alternative medicine, MMI, DMILS

Are There Any Effects Other Than Suggestion in External Qi
Mikio YAMAMOTO1 , Hideyuki KOKUBO1, Suzue HARAGUCHI 1, Tomoko KOKADO1, Masataka TANAKA1, Tong ZHANG1 , Weizhong CHEN1, Junichirou KOTAKE 1, Hideo YOICHI1, Kimiko KAWANO2, 1 and Nobuo FUKUDA 1
1. Yamamoto Bio-Emission Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan
2. Center for Informatics and Science, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan

This is a part of the report on basic pilot experimental researches on external "qi" or "ki", healing and telepathy in the Bio-Emission Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), in Japan. Qi/ki is a basic concept towards life within oriental philosophy and is a subtle energy. Some qigong masters (sender) cause body movements in others (receivers) or cure diseases without any physical contact. These masters claim that they use qi/ki. However, it is considered that suggestion must be in-volved.  The purpose of these researches is to evaluate whether or not there is something other than suggestion. The authors carried out scientific experiments using double blinded and randomized conditions and statis-tical analysis.  Experiments in Toh-ate: Toh-ate is a Japanese martial arts skill used to attack a person (receiver) who is at a distance of several meters from the attacker (sender). When the sender applies Toh-ate, the receiver steps back rapidly without any physical contact. In the experiment, the sender and a receiver were sepa-rated in different rooms.  The time difference between the sender's motion of qi-emission and the receiver's recoil response and physiological parameters were measured. The result on a pair of sender and receiver shows 1% statistical significance in the time coincidence. Other pairs show interesting results.  Experiment of perception of qi transfer: In this experiment, it was shown that a receiver even in a sen-sory-shielded state perceived qi sent from a qigong master. The difference in EEG alpha-wave intensity of the receiver is significant between qi sending and non-sending times.  Experiment on cultured human cells: It is shown that the number of formed colonies after exposure to X-rays which were healed by external qi was double that of the control.  These results show the possibility that there are some other effects than just suggestion.
Keywords: qi, ki, chi, qigong, martial arts, toh-ate, EEG, cells, telepathy, extra sensory perception

New Paradigm for the 21st Century
Yoichiro SAKO
International Society of Life Information Science (Chiba, Japan)
We should reconsider our current paradigm for this 21st century. In the 20th century, efficiency was given the highest priority,  and we pursued material satisfaction. We now need to move away from such materialism and to create a new paradigm which contributes to spiritual satisfaction. Research on “mind, spirit, soul, and consciousness” will be one of the most important research areas. In this lecture experimental data related to anomalous phenomena and potential human abilities are reported. Through these data, the directions of science and technology for the 21st century are discussed.
Keywords: new paradigm, mind-body interaction, anomalous phenomenon, human potential ability, spirit, consciousness

Physiological Analysis for Consciousness Power
(Non-visible Recognition and Pill Moving through Glass Bottle without any Physical Touch)

Yoshio MACHI , Chao LIU, Chang WANG and Bin WANG
Graduate School of Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Denki University (Tokyo, Japan)
We carried out clairvoyance experiments and obtained several physiological values to clarify the phenomenon of clairvoyance. We found that the subject’s sympathetic nervous system acted strongly and that her parasympathetic nervous system strengthened instantaneously. At this time, the blood flow in both her neck and forehead increased. Furthermore, her blood pressure increased, and the oxygen level in the blood decreased. We thought these effects were due to her brain’s consumption of so much oxygen as well as energy. A vibration phenomenon was found in the GSR data. EEG topography showed that her visual area and the frontal lobe became active when this phenomenon appeared. The electrical potential of those areas rose quickly; when the potential between two points rose, those points were connected. We found that the physiological data changed greatly when the activity of the right side of the brain became high, particularly in the frontal lobe.  We also conducted an another experiment in physiologically moving an object without any physical contact. When she showed her skill, the oxygen density in blood decreased, and it was similar to non-visual recognition, even if the blood flow in her neck increased. As for the time that she was in the practice period, the temperature of her left hand and her left foot decreased. In the time when she used her power, her state of breathing changed. The vibration phenomenon seen in the GSR data appeared in this experiment. This vibration frequency was in the domain of δ wave for brain waves at 1.4 Hz. Brain waves such as an EMG were sometimes seen, and δ waves appeared powerfully, though a short time at a area with a possible period. These δ waves occurred in the middle of her left frontal lobe and her temporal field, and a range active at the left coronal section of the head opened. It is thought that when the object moved to other place, action potential of the δ waves were the highest. Although non-visual recognition occurred in her right brain, this activity domain during moving a pill was reversed.
Keywords: clairvoyance, physiology, EEG, ECG, blood pressure, temperature, blood flow, autonomous nervous system, vibration signal from GSR, mind

The Koestler Parapsychology Unit and the Study of Consciousness
Robert L. MORRIS
Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh (UK)
The KPU was set up in 1985, "to conduct systematic and responsible research into the capacity attributed to some individuals to interact with their environments by means other than the recognised sensori-motor channels". If such a capacity exists, then it represents an aspect of mental life that may have profound implications for the nature of mind and of human consciousness. One or more new sets of mechanisms may be responsible, making new aspects of physics or even new means of direct interaction between mind and matter.  The research of our Unit involves three main areas: the study of physical factors as they may influence our brains and mental abilities; the study of the psychological experience, including how we interpret such experiences, what conditions are conducive to these experiences, what cognitive processes are involved, and what psychological explanations there may be for such experiences; and the implications of such experiences, for philosophy, for the person and for society as a whole.  If we are to evaluate such experiences, we must take into account at least twelve kinds of interpretations of them: co-incidence, inadequate observation, misinterpretation of observation, inadequate storage and retrieval of memories, hidden physical factors, self-deception, deception by others, functional distortion of information processing, biological distortion of information processing, physical factors not well understood, presently unknown natural processes and causation beyond nature. The first ten involve current scientific knowledge; the eleventh involves the kind of new knowledge being generated by  parapsychology; and the twelfth involves possible super-natural effects, beyond those that science can investigate. As part of the above, some of our research does include how people form and maintain beliefs, including beliefs that when carried to extremes can be dysfunctional to those involved.  In addition to the above, some of our research deals with what appear to be genuine instances of psychic functioning. For instance, we study the ability of one individual to influence the level of arousal or concentration of another person at a distance. We also study the ability of individuals in mild sensory deprivation to be influenced by vivid film material displayed on a remote monitor. Both have produced good positive results in our own research and elsewhere. The latter procedure has produced especially strong results with highly creative participants.  These findings, taken together, do indicate that we have abilities to interact with our environments using means well beyond those of conventional physics, biology and psychology. This in turn suggests that, until the full range of mechanisms involved becomes more completely understood, our knowledge of ourselves and of the nature of consciousness will remain very incomplete.
Keywords: parapsychology, Koestler Parapsychology Unit, anomalous experiences, ESP, PK, extrasensory perception, psychokinesis, psi, ganzfeld

The Present Conditions and the Prospects of Somatic Research in China
Lanxu XU
President, Chinese Society of Somatic Science (Beijing, China)
Te Yi Gong Neng (special human functions or consciousness power)  is an important part of human body science.  Chinese scientist Professor Qian Xue-sen has said.  In China we have been carrying out research for 20 years, and a dispute has occurred about objectivity among the scientific community.  The point at issue was the credibility of Te Yi Gong Neng phenomena; some scholars said that they were abnormal, others called them fakes which deviated from the principle of natural science and were magic, tricks, etc.  People criticized and negated the phenomenon. On the other hand, some scholars accepted them with sincerity and studied them repeatedly. As a result of many measurements using scientific observations and all scientific means that can be used and inquiring, Te Yi Gong Neng reached a status that these were objective facts.  Moreover, many nature orders were observed in the Te Yi Gong Neng.  The human body is a macro system which is open, complicated and has consciousness.  Qi and the circulatory system are important parameters hidden in the macro system called the human body, so studying the phenomena of Te Yi Gong Neng can not only deepen understanding of the human body, but also can lead to further progress in human society.  This study may touch off the science in the 21st century and cause an even more meaningful scientific revolution that that brought by the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics.  Here we report some interesting results and theories that were studied about unique perception seen from many phenomena of Te Yi Gong Neng.  Also, we introduce briefly some bold hypotheses in research on the mechanism of Te Yi Gong Neng, for example, Gong Neng Tai Shuo (special human functions state theory), a kind of electromagnetic field theory, and a multi-dimension space theory, etc.  We hope this presentation promotes debate among the international scientists at the conference and reading the Journal of ISLIS.

A fMRI Brain Imaging Study of Presentiment
Dick J. BIERMAN  and  H. Steven SCHOLTE
University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
The present study examined the neural substrates of anticipation in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten subjects were scanned while 48 pictures were presented. Each stimulus sequence started with the 4.2 seconds presentation of a fixation point before and during which the anticipation was measured. After the exposure of the stimulus picture which lasted also 4.2 second there was a period of 8.4 seconds during which the subject was supposed to recover from the stimulus presentation.  It is found that large parts of the visual cortex do show larger activity after emotional stimuli than after calm.  All brain regions that show a difference have also a response on calms except for regions that are at or near the amygdala. Here violent and erotic stimuli do generate a response but the response on calm stimuli is flat.  Anticipatory effects tend to influence baseline values and hence influence the response values. This might be a problem if the subject is guessing the upcoming stimulus condition correctly but with proper randomiza-tion this is theoretically impossible. Great care was taken to randomize stimulus conditions with replacement  while using different pictures for each stimulus presentation.  Results suggest that, in spite of proper random-ization, anticipatory activation preceding emotional stimuli is larger than the anticipatory activation preced-ing neutral stimuli. For the male subjects this appeared before the erotic stimuli while for the female both erotic and violent stimuli produced this anomalous effect.  Possible normal explanations of this apparent anomaly, also called ‘presentiment’, are discussed. Most notably the possibility that this effect is just a result of ‘fishing’ for the right analysis out of many possible analyses.  Exploratory results are presented dealing with differential effects in the responses to emotional stimuli and calm visual stimuli.
Keywords: presentiment,  anomalous anticipation,  emotion,  fMRI,  precognition

Physiological Study of Ki in Kiatsu Rhoho - Difference between a Ki master and a not well-trained master -
Yoshio MACHI 1, Chao LIU1, Koichi TOHEI 2, Toshiaki ISHIZAKI 2 , Tsutomu HAMAOKA2 and Setsuo KODATO 2
1. Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki Univ., (Tokyo, JAPAN)
2. KI Development Institute (Ichikai,Tochigi, JAPAN)
For studying what difference exists between a Ki master and a Ki beginner in Kiatsu Rhoho as a method to promote human health by sending the Ki of the universe to a damaged part of a patient’s body, ta physiological experiment was carried out, where a lot of particularly distinguishable phenomena were observed. The difference in the physiological effect between the two subjects is presented.
Keywords: heart rate, R point voltage, Ki respiration, blood pressure, EEG topography

Investigations on Influences of Vibrations to Organs - Time Series Analyses of Waveforms Obtained by Pulse Diagnosis -
           Noriyasu MASUMOTO1, Kiichi TSUCHIYA2, Hiroshi YAMAKAWA 2 and Mitsuo UMEZU2
           1. WABOT-HOUSE Laboratory, Waseda Univ. (Gifu, Japan)
           2. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Waseda Univ. (Tokyo, Japan)
Human bodies maintain their systems under influences of various vibrations. In this study, influences of vibrations to organs are investigated from the point of mechanical engineering view through time series analyses.  The heart and the vocal cords are
regarded as the input sources of vibrations. The influences of vibrations that appear in organs are analyzed quantitatively through the six sets of time series of pulse waves measured by the pulse diagnosis sensors at the six points on the both wrists. A qualitative and quantitative investigation about so called pulse diagnosis is the first purpose in this study when the vibration source is the heart, and the second is a study on the effectiveness of the qigong called six sound qigong by using the pulse diagnosis when the vocal cords are the vibration sources. This study is still in preparation now, so the theories are mainly mentioned in this paper.

vibration, organ, time series analysis, pulse diagnosis, six sound qigong

Acute Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on Venous Blood Gases and pH
Myeong Soo Lee1 , Seong Min Jeong1, Hye-Sook Jang 2, Hoon Ryu3 , and Sun-Rock Moon4*
1. Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science Wonkwang University, School of Medicine, Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
2. Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Health Science College (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
3. Department of Neurology, Harvard Institute of Medicine, (Boston, MA 02115, U.S.A)
4. Department of Radiation Oncology, Wonkwang University, School of Medicine (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
Although Qi-training is known to exert a positive effect on stabilizing cardiovascular and pulmonary functions, its effect on other components of the blood gases have been less studied.  In this study, we investigated the changes of the venous blood gas concentrations and pH during pre-, mid- and post-time of ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training. Twelve normal healthy CDSB Qi-trainees volunteered to participated in this study.  The venous blood concentrations of PCO2 and PO2 were significantly changed by Qi-training [PO2: F(4,40)=7.38, p<0.01, PCO2: F(4,40)=7.67, p<0.01]. The mean value of PO2 increased during CDSB Qi-training by 1.13kPa (about 35.6 %) compared to the pre-training (t= -10 min). Also, there were significant differences at t=40 min (p<0.01) and t=60min (p<0.05). During Qi-training, the mean decrease of PCO2 was 0.8kPa (about 10%), significantly different from pre-training at t=40 min (p<0.01) and t=60min (p<0.01). The increases in PO2 and pH, and the decrease in PCO2 were observed in venous blood. From these results, it is suggested that the practical application of CDSB Qi-training may exert a positive regulatory function on the physiological status.

Keywords : Qigong, blood gas, partial pressure of oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH

Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-Training on the Metabolic Rate and Cardiorespiratory Responses
Myeong Soo Lee1, Seong Min Jeong 1, Hye-Sook Jang2 , Hoon Ryu3, and Sun-Rock Moon 4*
1. Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science Wonkwang University, School of Medicine, Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University(Iksan, Republic of Korea)
2. Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Health Science College (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
3. Department of Neurology, Harvard Institute of Medicine, ( Boston, MA 02115, U.S.A)
4. Department of Radiation Oncology, Wonkwang University, School of Medicine (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
Abstract :
Six volunteers participated in a graded exercise test and one hour of basic form of ChunDoSunBup(CDSB) Qi-training to investigate the cardiorespiratory responses and exercise intensity of Qi-training. CDSB Qi-training induced significant changes in oxygen consumption(VO2/l,VO2/kg), carbon dioxide production (VCO2/l), ventilation (VE/l), heart rate (HR/beats/min), breath frequency(BF/min), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) tidal volume(VT), and metabolic rate (MET). The exercise intensity of Qi-training was 42.3%, 46.7 % and 38.8% of HRmax during the sound exercise, slow motion (haeng-gong) and meditation, respectively, and the average was 42.6% of HRmax. We conclude that CDSB Qi-training is an aerobic, light intensity exercise, which leads to a decrease of the metabolic rate in the trainee by breathing efficiently and relaxing them. In addition, CDSB Qi-training may affect the cardiorespiratory function and metabolic rate in trainees.
Keywords : qigong, heart rete, exercise intensity, cardiorespiratory responses

Comparison of the Effectiveness That Shiatsu Massage of Cervico-brachial Area Has on Psychosomatic Relaxation Where Qi Is Applied and Where It Is Not
Akira FUKUOKA, Eriko UEDA, Hiroshi FUKUOKA and Yuko KOYAMA
Fukuoka Dental Clinic Research Laboratory of Integrative Medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
Shiatsu massage on the cervico-brachial area is useful in inducing psychosomatic relaxation to reduce strain, anxiety and prevent       unpleasant postoperative symptoms in dental patients.  Here we clinically and objectively observed the difference in effect when Shiatsu is applied with ‘Qi’ (life energy) consciously wishing to heal the patient and when Shiatsu is simply applied mechanically.
Keywords : Qi, Shiatsu massage on cervico-brachial area, psychosomatic relaxation, MV, BCES, thermogram, EEG

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) and Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture-point Stimulation (TEAS) on Muscular Relaxation and Psychosomatic Relaxation in a Dental Clinical
Yuko KOYAMA, Eriko UEDA, Hiroshi FUKUOKA and Akira FUKUOKA
Fukuoka Dental Clinic Research Laboratory of Integrative Medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
We compared the effectiveness of TENS (Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation), that stimulates nerves using plate electrodes over the skin, and TEAS (Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture-point Stimulation), that can yield maximum effect by concentrating small stimulation over acupuncture points, in inducing muscular relaxation and psychosomatic relaxation. MKG and EMG stability indices indicated that both stimulation methods reduced muscle tension and improved autonomic nerve function but, based on MV and EEG, we understood that the acupuncture point stimulation of the TEAS was more effective in balancing central nerve function and inducing psychosomatic relaxation.
Keywords: TENS, TEAS, muscular relaxation, psychosomatic relaxation

Usefulness of Shiatsu Massage on Cervico-brachial Area and Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture-point Stimulation(TEAS)in Dental Treatment
Eriko UEDA, Hiroshi FUKUOKA, Yuko KOYAMA and Akira FUKUOKA
Fukuoka Dental Clinic Research Laboratory of Integrative Medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
Through observation of plethysmography (PTG), body compressive elasticity system (BCES),   change in gingival blood-flow rate, EEG topogram and effectiveness in preventing unpleasant postoperative symptoms after complicated tooth extraction,  we examined the usefulness of preoperative application of Transcutaneous Electrical Acupuncture-point Stimulation(TEAS)and Shiatsu massage on the cervico-brachial area in inducing psychosomatic relaxation, reducing patient anxiety and tension before intrusive operations and preventing the manifestation of unpleasant postoperative symptoms.
Keywords: Shiatsu massage on cervico-brachial area, TEAS, relaxation induction, prevention of unpleasant symptoms

Evaluation and Selection of Dental Materials Using the Magnetic Inspired Resonance Spectrum (MIRS)
Hiroshi FUKUOKA1, Eriko UEDA 1, Yuko KOYAMA1, Akira FUKUOKA 1, Akio NORO2 and Kazuyu TAKAHASHI 2
1. Fukuoka Dental Clinic Research Laboratory of Integrative Medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
2. Tokyo Dental College (Tokyo, Japan)
The new concept “Hado” has been proposed, and the Hado analyzer has been developed as a device that can measure the degree of healthiness and the degree of disease progression as well as qualities of dental materials.  However, these measurements are greatly affected by operator-related factors, including operator’s technical skill and emotional condition at the time of analysis. Moreover, interpretation of assessment results also varies among investigators.  In the present study, 11 kinds of dental materials, placed in contact with the teeth during actual use, were measured by operators with different skills, using the magnetic inspired resonance spectrum (MIRS), and differences in measurements obtained were evaluated.  Measurements were also made for subjects by experienced MIRS operators, and the results were evaluated and compared, in order to determine whether compatibility between the subject and each material could be evaluated, rather than comparison among dental materials.
Keywords: Hado, MIRS, dental materials, operators, compatibility

The Growth of Labial-Closure-Strength in Youths
Junichi TAKAHASHI1, Akio NORO 2, Yoshiaki AKIHIRO3 , and Kazuyu TAKAHASHI2
1. Dept. of Periodontics, Tokyo Dental College,
2. Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College,
3. Dentistry in Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo Dental College (Tokyo, Japan)
We have developed an oral cavity rehabilitation apparatus "Patakala" and labial-closure-strength measuring apparatus "Lip-de-Cum". In this study, we measured the labial-closure strength of 3-20yr old subjects and have studied the change of the strength along with physical development. The labial-closure strength was fully developed at the age of 18-20yrs for both males (14N) and females (12N).
Keywords:  labial-closure-strength, mouth respiration, oral rehabilitation apparatus,  myofunctional therapy

The Chronological Changes of Labial-Closure-Strength in Adults
Akio NORO, Junichi TAKAHASHI, Yoshiaki AKIHIRO , and Kazuyu TAKAHASHI
1. Dept. of Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College (Tokyo, Japan)
2. Dept. of Periodontics, Tokyo Dental College (Tokyo, Japan)
3. Dept. of Dentistry in Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo Dental College (Tokyo, Japan)
Research was carried out to measure the changes of L-C-S (Labial-Closure-Strength) due to aging. Numbers of subjects were: 761   adults (20 to 59 yrs old) and 170 elderly (60 to 89 yrs old), total of 931 subjects.  L-C-S is fully developed at the age of about 18-20yrs for both males and females.  L-C-S was 14-16N for males and 10-12N for females. These numbers showed only slight change until 60, but after this age the strength declined gradually due to age. L-C-S of healthy adults, both males and females in every age group were 3-4N higher than adults with diseases.
Keywords: labial-closure-strength, mouth respiration, snoring, oral rehabilitation apparatus, myofunctional therapy

TMJ as a Meridian Pump in Oriental Medicine
Miyagi Dental Clinic (Shizuoka, Japan)
The TMJ (temporomandibular joint) can be hypothesized to be a meridian pump in Oriental medicine.  The TMJ pump functions and   capillarity works on the meridian which consists of three streams.  In my research, many humoniaes (83%) practice right bite.  It may be because the meridian on the left side of a person is weakened and the left bronchus bends.  The skull bone movement of Professor Sazarland’s theory may be the same as meridian stream direction.  All meridians begin and end around TMJ.  Only the large intensive meridian, Hegu, ends in the skull bone.  The Hegu meridian works specially in clinic treatments.  My presentation is by an inductive method.
Keywords: TMJ (temporomandibular joint), qi

An Experiment on Meridian Effect using Minute Light Radiation
Hiroo INDOU1 and Takeo OKU 2
1. TMR Oriental Medicine Clinic, Chousindou (Kanagawa, Japan)
2.  Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Osaka, Japan)   
This paper describes meridian functions with respect to processing minute information. We examined differences in physiological effects on radiation with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and measured them using electroencephalography (EEG) and the single square voltage pulse method. The results demonstrated that the reactions changed with wavelengths. We suggest that the meridian system senses minute information and may affect the subconscious.
Keywords: meridian, LED, EEG, single square voltage pulse method, optic area

Effect of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Recovery of Critical Fusion Frequency Decreased by VDT Work
Takashi AOKI1, Yoshinori ADACHI 2 and Katsushi YOSHIDA3
1. College of Engineering, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
2. College of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
3. Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of acupuncture stimulation as traditional Oriental therapy on the recovery from eye fatigue   induced by VDT (visual display terminal) work, changes in the critical fusion frequency were measured. Two subject groups were examined: one group consisted of short-time (about 1 hr/day) VDT workers and the other group consisted of a long-time (about 7 hr/day) VDT worker. The resulting findings were as follows. The critical fusion frequency after acupuncture stimulation significantly increased (i.e., the fatigue was recovered) more than that after no stimulation, at relatively early stages of the stimulation course. As an entire tendency, the recovery time of the critical fusion frequency was shortened by the stimulation, depending on the stimulation time. The recovery rate of eye fatigue was the largest at the earliest stage, 4 minutes, and gradually decreased at the following stages of the stimulation course. In the case of the long-time VDT worker, the decrease in the critical fusion frequency after a VDT work test (8 min) was relatively small, and the value of the critical fusion frequency after 12 minutes of stimulation became larger than the initial value. These experimental results suggest that, as a preventive medicine, acupuncture stimulation can considerably help to relieve eye fatigue, whether one is involved in VDT work or not.
Keywords: VDT (visual display terminal), CFF (critical fusion frequency), eye fatigue, acupuncture, Oriental therapy

Study on Sensor Pressure Dependence of Pulse Waves
Yoshinori ADACHI1 and Takashi AOKI 2
1. Dept. of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu Univ. (Kasugai, Japan)
2. Dept. of Engineering, Chubu Univ. (Kasugai, Japan)
Pulse diagnosis is one of four efficient diagnostic methods in traditional Chinese medicine.  There are various views about distinguishing the pulse which have been handed down as qualitative expressions based on experience.  Then pulse diagnosis cannot be used widely and immediately by every one; long experience is required before applying it to diagnosis.  In this study, to standardize pulse diagnosis, the pulse is taken near the wrist radius using a condenser microphone.  The change of pulse image for the depression pressure of the microphone is noted, and the traditional expression of the change of pulse image by “the float press, the middle press and the sink press” is examined.  As a result, the guideline on depression pressure and systematic change of the pulse image is obtained.
Keywords: pressure dependence, pulse wave, condenser microphone, Chinese medicine, pulse diagnosis

Immune Responses During Zhang Method Qigong
Yuzo HIGUCHI1, Yasnori Kotani 1, Yoshitsugu HAYASHI2 and Shinichiro MOMOSE3
1. Tokyo Institute of Technology(Tokyo, Japan),
2. Musashino Treatment Center(Saitama, Japan),
3. Momose Clinic(Tokyo, Japan)
The Zhang Method Qigong was inherited by the popular Chinese Qigong Master Zhang Yong Xiang;  he then improved it in his own way using a qigong method that effectively enhances qi energy and by incorporating spiritual energy at the same time.  Effective results have been achieved in regular qigong sessions using this method.  Before and after a 40-minute session of Zhang Method Qigong, the level of Natural Killer (NK) activity and the ratio of CD4/CD8 and Th1/ Th2 were measured.  A marked increase in the level of NK cell activity was detected, but there were no changes in Th1/Th2 and CD4/CD8.  These results suggest that by conducting qigong practice, immunity and adjustment functions are enhanced.
Keywords: Zhang Method Qigong, NK cell activity, CD4/CD8, Th1/Th2

Effect of external Qi, a Chinese alternative medicine, on an electroencephalogram and the autonomic nervous system
- Difference between suggestion effect and external Qi effect-

Seiya Uchida, Masahiro Ueno, Hisanobu Sugano and Kazuo Nitta
MOA Health Science Foundation (Shizuoka, Japan)
We measured the effect of external Qi by an electroencephalogram (EEG) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) with a stricter     protocol for excluding the effect of suggestion on the subjects. Three experiments of external Qi emission were performed as follows: (Experiment 1) The changes in the EEGs of 10 subjects were measured with and any without suggestion; (Experiment 2) Changes in the fluctuation of the R-R interval in 62 were measured subjects with suggestion; and (Experiment 3) Changes in the fluctuation of the R-R interval in 10 subjects were measured without suggestion, with only suggestion and with resting on a bed. As a result, we clarified that externally administered Qi without any suggestion influences the increase of the alpha waves and activation of the vagus nerve.
Keywords: EEG, Alpha wave, vagus nerve, External Qi, Okada Purifying therapy, suggestion effect.

Exploratory Studies of External Qi in China
Zhongpeng LIN 1,3 and Kevin CHEN 2,3
1. Chinese National Academy of Qigong (Beijing, China)
2. Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (New Jersey, USA)
3. World Institute for Self Healing, Inc. (New Jersey, USA)
This paper briefly reviews five different cate-gories of major studies on external Qi (EQ) that were performed in China: physical detectors, chemical dynam-ics methods, biological detectors, life-sensors detectors, and detectors using human body. Here, the focus is on the pros and cons of each detector. The extant literature suggests that some form of bio-information (about which we know very little) plays a critical role in the effect of EQ. From physical detector to human body detector, the energy sensitivity decreases, while the bio-information sensitivity increases. Future studies should use more bio-logical or life detectors to increase our understanding of the bio-information within Qigong. 
Keywords:  Qigong, external qi, wai qi, biofield, subtle en-ergy, measurement, bio-information.

Measurement of Bio-magnetic Fields from Human Hands during Qi-Emission
Hak-Soo SHIN1, Ku Youn BAIK 1, Byung-Doo KWON2, Sang Yong CHOI3, Han Seo KOO3 , Shin-Ja KO4, and Kwang-Sup SOH 1
1. School of Physics, Seoul National University (Seoul, Korea)
2. Earth Science Education Department, Seoul National University (Seoul, Korea)
3. Han-Seo Bio-Magnetic Research Center (Seoul, Korea)
4. Oorinara Co., Ltd,( Seoul, Korea)
We used a fluxgate to measure the bio-magnetic field from the palm during Qi emission. Four subjects among ten Qi-gong practitioners showed moderate bio-magnetism of 1nT order. Qi-gong practitioners' bio-magnetism signals exhibit certain characteristic frequencies depending upon each individual. We could not, however, determine whether the observed signal is the bio-magnetic field emitted from the palm or only a manifestation of the modulated background magnetic field.
Keywords: bio-magnetic field, Qi, Qigong, correlation analysis, Fourier analysis

The Psi Personality in Field Research
Michaeleen C. MAHER 
Department of Social Sciences, The New School University (New York City, U.S.A.)
Abstract :
Researchers have long hypothesized that features of human personality are related to psi abilities such as extrasensory perception (ESP) and psychokinesis (PK), whether such talents manifest in the laboratory or in field-research settings. For example, Schmeidler1) found when reviewing personality variables assessed by psi studies that traits such as extraversion, spontaneity, and lack of defensiveness correlated positively with success on psi tasks, whereas traits such as introversion, rigidity, and neuroticism appeared to be negatively related to psi success. In the present study, a projective psychological test was administered to several key members of a “sitter group” that reported frequent manifestations of  psychokinetic phenomena during “table-tipping” sessions. Responses to the test were compared to projective-test responses provided by members of a team of parapsychological investigators.
Keywords : psi personality, field studies, projective psychological tests, sitter groups, psychokinesis

A Christian Way of Religious Experience - from my experience
Dept of English Literature, Bukkyo Univ. (Kyoto, Japan)
Abstract :
The religious experience, especially the Christian one, gives humans an enormous amount of spiritual energy and new life. (This           presentation is limited to my personal experience.) This may be termed a personal version of William James, Some Aspects of Religious Experience. The Christian Religious Experience is typically characterized by eight elements: 1) repentance of sins, 2) real sense of forgiveness of sins by the Son of God, 3) a flood of joy wells up in the heart, 4) reaching the universe - a sense of becoming like a pin in the great vastness of the spiritual universe, feeling oneself disappearing into the expanse of the universe, 5) the senses and intellect become sharply alive, 6) the sense of the conscience becoming exceptionally sharp, 7) a sense of feeling that this world is desperately fallen, 8) feeling always at one with a personal Transcendental Being from whom comes pure joy.
Keywords : sins, living Christ, spiritual redemption, special grace, man of freedom

The Research on Practice of Public Relations -development of Psi training for a group of people-
Yukiko ISHII
Dept. of Health and Social Services, National Institute of Public Health (Saitama, Japan) 
Abstract :
In December 2001, I made an interimreport on practice of public relations at JSPPconference. In Japan, few people have understanding of Human Psi, and also very few scientific researcheson it have been conducted. Therefore, very few people show their understanding of the researches onHuman Psi. Especially in the previous research, itbecame clear that it was difficult for officials inadministrative organs and in community health toaccept Human Psi.  Therefore, this time, I decided to conduct aresearch on leaders who are engaged inadministrative organs and are also at the same timeprofessional in community health in 3 cities. ThroughPsi training, I wanted to see whether it would bepossible for the leaders to have deeper understandingof Human Psi.  As a result, the leaders showed more interest in and understanding of Human Psi. In addition to it, it was suggested that the possibility of discoveringpeople with high Psi ability is higher through Psitraining to a group of people rather than to an individual.
Keywords : public relation, human Psi, grouptraining, community health leaders

A Study of Prayer for Cancer Patients and Families
Kyoto University,Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies (Kyoto, Japan)
The purpose of this study is to analyze prayer from three aspects: 1) Intercessory Prayer; 2) Transmitting Healing Energy by Laying-on of hands; 3) Attitudinal or Psychosomatic Healing in Japan. It proposes the possibility of spiritual healing for cancer patients and families by these three types of prayer.
Keywords: prayer,spiritual care,spiritual healing,cancer,terminal care

How does Yoga affect the brain?
Masatoshi ITOH, Laxmi Narayan SINGH, Keiichiro YAMAGUCHI, Masayasu MIYAKE, Shoichi WATANUKI and Myeong Gi JEONG
Div of Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University(Sendai, Japan)
Yoga aims to attain a union of mind and body and reach extreme tranquility. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to understand this state of mind with the collaboration of seven Yoga practitioners having more than eight years of Yoga practice. After the ingestion of a radioactive glucose analogue(FDG), subjects performed 14  Yoga postures(Assannas)consecutively for one hour. The brain was imaged using a PET tomograph to identify the brain regions altered by Yoga. A statistical parametric mapping technique (SPM96) was applied to anatomically standardize the brain images to match a standard brain template. Analysis revealed widespread changes in glucose metabolism, mainly in the motor and association motor areas as activation sites and fronto-temporal, limbic, and brainstem regions as deactivation sites. The results support that Yoga induces tonic reductions in deep brain areas, including the limbic system and  brain stem. If MacLean’s triune brain theory is adopted, meditation seems to be a way for the rational brain to obtain control of the diencephalons and brain stem through the limbic brain.
Keywords : PET, FDG, yoga, cerebral metabolism, meditation

Observation of Cerebral Activation by Meridian Point Stimulus - Using Functional-MRI -
 Yoshihiro UEDA1, Kouei HAYASHI 1,Kyoichi KUROIWA1,Yoshio MACHI2 and Hiroki TANABE
 1. Kansai College of Oriental Medicine (Osaka, Japan),
  2. Tokyo Denki University(Tokyo, Japan)3Kansai Advanced Research Center (Kobe, Japan)
Abstract :
It is said that acupuncture treatments involve sensory stimulating therapy that subjectively conducts stimulus points (meridian points) and stimulus contents (tonification and sedation, getting-qi , etc.) while giving treatment.  Recently, it has also been pointed out that the central nervous system is related to the acupuncture reaction mechanism.  If these ideas are appropriate, there is a possibility that the differences in the stimulus points and stimulus contents (sensory stimulus differences) cause differences in the reaction of the central nervous system. Therefore, the authors studied ① how the differences in the stimulus points (hand or leg and left or right) would cause cerebral activities and, ② how differences of stimulus contents (sense of pain, non-getting-qi, getting-qi) , etc. would cause the cerebral activities, using f-MRI.  The former effect differences by stimulus points were that each corresponding cerebral activation was observed in the S1 areas. The latter effect differences by stimulus contents were that the dominant differences in cerebral activation were observed in the response of the central nervous system (S1, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, gyrus cinguli, parahippocampus gyrus, cerebellum and insula).  Most of all, the S1 activation by getting-qi stimulus was bilateral and enormously influenced by the sense of getting-qi.
Keywords : acupuncture, getting-qi, meridian points, f-MRI, activation

Measurements of Distant Healing Effects
Information Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tohoku-Gakuin University (Sendai, Japan)
Three different types of distant healing were investigated by measurements of subjects who received healing over distances of           300-11000km under blind or double-blind conditions.  The measurements were carried out by using a single square voltage method,   near infrared photometry and thermography to observe changes in electroconductivity, blood flow, function of the autonomic nervous system, oxygen metabolism in the brain, and body surface temperature. Amazing effects of distant healing, such as vigorous body     movement and changes in BP, electroconductivity and the blood flow related variable, were observed in mental(conscious)-contact type of healing and appeared in synchrony with events which occurred in the healing session1). In two other types of healing, the           parasympathetic nerve was excited during distant healing, resulting in calm tranquilized states.  A change in temperature distribution was observed in distant healing between New York and Sendai, Japan.  When subjects had experienced a vision of light during the distant healing, their brains were observed to be in a stable oxygen supplied state. In certain cases, there seemed to be distant information perception by healers concerning the subjects’ characteristics and physical states.
Keywords: distant healing, spiritual healing, Qi-gong, single square voltage pulse method, near infrared photometry, thermography, electroconductivity, blood flow, oxygen metabolism, surface temperature, brain, spontaneous body movement, light vision, conscious contact  

Characteristics of EEG during Various Meditations
Kimiko KAWANO1, Mikio YAMAMOTO 2, Hideyuki KOKUBO2, Weizhong CHEN2 and Tong ZHANG 2
1. Centre for Informatics and Sciences, Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
2. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
              EEG analysis was used to study about the brain condition during various meditations.  Main subjects of this study were a male and a                       female practitioner who practiced meditation as their daily work.  Comparisons were made with Zen priests, qigong masters,                                   transcendental meditation (TM) practitioners and Japanese incense masters, whose EEGs have been previously measured by the                         authors.  EEG was judged as being a capable indicator to estimate the brain condition during meditation: i.e. (1) relaxation degree was                 estimated by effective a amplitude on the occipital area; (2) variation of images, by changes in a frequency; (3) degree of the altered                       state of consciousness, by the ratio of the frontal/occipital a amplitude; (4) concen-tration degree, by the lag time of the a phase between               the frontal and occipital areas; and (5) an activation rate of the verbal or imagery site, by the ratio of right/left occipital a amplitude.

Keywords: EEG, meditation, frontal a wave, a frequency, lag time of a phase

Brain Activation during Qigong Meditation: Comparison of  EEG and Optical Topography Results
Tong ZHANG1, Weizhong CHEN 1, Hideo YOICHI1 , Suzue HARAGUCHI 1, Kimiko KAWANO2,1,
Hideyuki KOKUBO
1 and Mikio YAMAMOTO1
1. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2. Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
Many studies have shown a power increase of alpha activity and sometimes a high-amplitude theta rhythm over the frontal lobes during meditation. But few studies have discussed the related brain areas. In this paper, we studied qigong meditation by employing a newly developed technique, optical topography to identify cortical areas specifically involved in the meditation state. As comparison, EEG results on the same task are also presented. Compared with the control state, our EEG analysis results showed statistically significant increases(p<0.001)of alpha power in Fp1 and O1 areas, while statistically significant increases (p<0.001)of the theta power were found in Fz, C3, C4, T5  and T6 areas. In the analysis of optical topography, the results varied considerably in different regions. In the frontal areas, with the progression of the qigong meditation task, after decreasing for some time, the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (tHb) increased together. While in the parietal-occipital areas, both of them decreased continuously. On the other hand, concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) increased slightly during the qigong meditation state, then declined gradually to the original level during the control state in the frontal areas, but remained constant in the parietal-occipital areas. Comparison to other studies on mental concentration tasks employing near-infrared spectroscopy suggested that “revival after inhibition of the frontal lobes” could be one of the characteristics of the brain activity during qigong meditation.
Keywords: qigong meditation, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, near-infrared spectroscopy, optical topography, alpha activity, theta activity, frontal lobes, mental concentration

Religiosity and Anomalous Experiences among College Students
Department of Integrated Human Sciences, Kyoto University (Kyoto, Japan)
Western definitions of religion frequently fail to acknowledge ways in which non-Western people have profoundly religious sensibilities.  This study examines the experiences of Japanese college students to suggest (1) aspects of Japanese religiosity, and (2) a more holistic perspective on religious experience.  Students were asked to report their anomalous experiences; this data is compared to that of students from other cultures.  This study concludes that Japanese people have a broad range of anomalous experiences that might well be considered religious experiences in a different culture.
Keywords: religiosity, anomalous experience, paranormal   

A Review of Qigong Therapy for Cancer Treatment
Kevin CHEN and Raphael YEUNG
Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (New Jersey, USA)
Research studies of qigong therapy for cancer in the past 20 years in China were reviewed from three different categories: clinical study on human cancer patients, in-vitro study of cancer cells, and in-vivo study of cancer with qigong therapy, in an attempt to understand the role qigong therapy plays in can-cer treatment.  There is a lot of evidence suggesting that qigong therapy has an inhibitory effect on cancer growth, both in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical observation (often there was room for im-provement in these studies and some studies require replication in order to verify their findings).  Qigong therapy for cancer is an area that is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research, and it should be seriously examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer treatment.
Keywords:  qigong therapy, cancer, clinical trial, in-vivo, in-vitro study, inhibitory effect

Superfluid Vacuum as a Basis for Explanation of Some Phenomena of Parapsychology
Liudmila B. BOLDYREVA1 , Nina B. SOTINA2
1. State University of Management (Moscow, Russia)
2. Moscow State University (Moscow, Russia)
An analysis of a number of experiments shows that diffusion, electromagnetic, and acoustic processes may account for action-at-a-distance of a human operator. At the same time, there is a lot of experiments on operators' effects whose results cannot be explained by those processes. In search for new possible media and mechanisms of the operator's action-at-a-distance we addressed the physical vacuum, and we have concluded that some experimental results could be explained within a model of superfluid vacuum.  According to our model, any quantum system creates structures in superfluid vacuum. This refers, in particular, to living organisms which consist of very large biomolecules. Influencing of instruments or organisms by human operators is performed through interaction between the respective structures in superfluid vacuum. On the basis of the model we have developed recommendations on performing a number of experiments in the field of parapsychology.
Keywords: superfluid physical vacuum, psychokinesis, experiments in parapsychology, structures in physical vacuum, quantum mechanics in parapsychology

Solid Evidence of Psychic Power: Materiality of Consciousness (Sixteen Years Research on Psi Phenomena)
Jinchuan Shen and Chulin Sun
Institution of Psychic Quantum Energy (IPQE), China University of Geosciences (Beijing, China)
Data of our 16 years of experiments on PSI phenomena are briefly introduced here, which can be thought as new solid evidence for the existence of psychic power. Ms. Chulin Sun has demonstrated an extraordinary PSI abilities to emit an unknown Energy-Message Combination to make concerned objects and life forms being strongly influenced, attribute and behavior of this combination are rather unusual and can not be explained properly based on current knowledge, so authors believe that there must be a new kind of energy involved, a group of new terms (Psychic Quantum Energy and etc.) are suggested for use. Several viewpoints are also put in this paper for discussion.
Keywords: PQE, psychokinesis, thoughtography, revitalization, magnetic effect, bio-photon emission, tianmu screen, Geller effect, RS photography

A Review on Experimental Research of External-Qi of Qigong
Tianjun LIU
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (Beijing, China)
As one part of basic scientific research on Qigong, experimental research on external-Qi came to a climax in 1980’s, and gave rise to more general attention in society. A review of experimental research on external-Qi in the past 10 years is made and about 170     experiments were done which involved external-Qi. The paper points out that in view of experimental science, an affirming conclusion of the objective existence of external-Qi can not be reached yet. But not affirming does not mean denying. Regarding research, a subject that is not affirmed by experimental science might belong to pre-science, or science that is not realized by people yet, or pseudo-science; but not affirming does not mean it must belong to pseudoscience only. Thus the above experiments can not give enough bases to affirm the existence of external-Qi only, but there are not enough experimental bases to deny the existence of external-Qi either. Then the paper raises 2 definitions of external-Qi and 5 measures to advance experimental research on external-Qi. One definition is that external-Qi is one kind of biological acting force sent by well-trained Qigong practitioners onto the things out of the body without touching. The 5 measures include applying double-blind principle, advocating multi-control experiments, doing error analysis, describing the operational process is in the reports,encouraging repetition done by different experimental technicians in different laboratories,etc.
Keywords: Qigong, external-Qi, experiment, review, research

Endocrine and Immune Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training
Myeong Soo Lee1, Seong Min Jeong 1, Hoon Ryu2, and Sun-Rock Moon3*
1. Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science Wonkwang University, School of Medicine,
Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University(Iksan, Republic of Korea)
2. Department of Neurology, Harvard Institute of Medicine, ( Boston, MA 02115, U.S.A)
3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Wonkwang University, School of Medicine (Iksan, Republic of Korea)
Abstract :
Qi-training is an Oriental, traditional psychosomatic training for the development of physical balance through isotonic, isometric slow   motions as well as psychological stabilization through meditation. The uniqueness of Qi-training has been distinguished from physical exercise. Cross-disciplinary approaches, which are based on the psychology, neuroendocrinology, and immunology, have shown that Qi-training influences the holistic health state in men. We found that ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training acutely increased the plasma level of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I during and after CDSB Qi-training. The increase of IGF-I followed the secretion of GH at mid-time and immediately after Qi-training. The plasma level of IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 was also increased significantly at the mid time of Qi-training. These results suggest that Qi-training might modulate the secretion of growth factors and hormone in men. In addition, the  respiratory function of neutrophil was rapidly increased in isolated neutrophils during and immediately after Qi-training. CDSB Qi-training was sufficient to elevate the capacity of circulating neutrophils to produce the superoxide anion (O2- ) upon stimulation in aged men. In an in vitro analysis, GH primed and increased the function and adhesion of neutrophils through the phosphorylation of Janus kinse (JAK)2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, focal adhesion kinas (FAK), and paxillin.  Taken together, in vivo and in vitro data suggest that Qi-training influences the secretion of GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and neutrophil function, which may enhance the immunological response against infection and inflammation through the modulation of an innate defence function. It is possible that the beneficial effects of Qi-training on psychological and immunological functions are mediated via neuroendocrine responses.
Keywords : Qigong, growth hormone, IGF-I, IGF-I binding protein, neutrophil, adhesion

The Effect of the Qigong Exercise Suwaishou from the Viewpoint of the Sway of the Center of Gravity
Katsushi YOSHIDA1, Yasuo YOSHIHUKU 2, Takashi AOKI3  and Yoshinori ADACHI4
1. Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
2. High-Tech Research Center, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
3. College of Engineering, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
4. College of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)        
We examined the effect of the Qigong exercise Suwaishou (SW) on the muscle groups of the lower extremities by measurement of the sway of the center of gravity. The subjects performed SW four times for 10 min each time. The sway length of every subject  increased remarkably after SW. It increased gradually until after the second performance of SW, and showed a stable value after that. After the last performance of SW the sway length was 1.7-1.8 times greater than after a chair rest. The sway area showed a similar increase and finally reached a value 1.9-2.0 times greater than after a chair rest. These results in addition to the impressions stated by the subjects meant that SW places a rather strong load on leg muscles, and can be a satisfactory exercise, especially for the elderly, whose leg muscles have declined, and that its suitable performing time is about twenty minutes.
Keywords: Qigong, Suwaishou, center of gravity, load intensity, suitable performing time

Measurements of Abdominal Respiration Patterns with Indexes and the Pulse Delay Time of Physiological Results in Regimen Qigong
Chao LIU and Yoshio MACHI 
Human body science Lab. Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University (Tokyo, Japan)
It is well known that respiratory control is one of the basic elements of qigong. The basic respiratory method of Regimen Qigong is       abdominal respiration. Which is said to be indispensable for achieving mind and body adjustment, health maintenance, ability             development, and also, the respiration is required to be deep, long, equal and thin. However, there is no standard of quantities concerning these demands, and no way to evaluate the respiration method which suits individual differences for each person, such as form and constitution. We thus established a respiratory index for expressing the respiratory pattern of the qigong method both qualitatively and quantitatively. Consequently, the phenomenon that the delay time of the pulse wave is shortened by respiratory control of health-care qigong could be checked. From respiratory control including the action, which controls the circulatory system, we could understand one end result of qigong training.
Keywords: abdominal respiration index, exhalation/inhalation rate K, abdominal respiration period time T, abdominal respiration depth M, nose temperature change rate A, physiological index, pulse delay time Pt.

The Effects of Various Kinds of Yoga Exercises on Grip Strength of Experienced and Inexperienced People
Yasuo YOSHIHUKU1 and Katsushi YOSHIDA2
1. High Technology Research Center, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
2. Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various kinds of short-term yoga exercises on grip strength, which is a good index of physical condition.  This study was composed of two parts, referred to as Study I and Study II.  The subjects were a male with four years of yoga experience and 21 males and females without any yoga experience in Study I, and two males and three females with 0.5-8 years experience in Study II.  They performed several kinds of exercises separately or in combinations.  Grip strength was measured just before and after each performance. The grip strength of inexperienced subjects did not show any change after the exercise.  The grip strength of the experienced subjects showed significant changes, but the change depended on the subjects and the kinds of exercises.  Combinations of the exercises did not change the grip strength any more than did the individual exercises.
Keywords: yoga, grip strength, respiration, asana, bandha

Altered Responses of Saliva Cortisol and Mood Status by Long-period Special Yoga Exercise Mixed with Meditation and Guided Imagery
Eri WATANABE1, Sanae FUKUDA1, Hisako HARA2 and Taro SHIRAKAWA1
1. Dept. of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto Univ. (Kyoto, Japan)
2. Hara Academy (Tokyo, Japan)
To clarify the psycho-neuro-endocrinological effects of yoga exercise with meditation and guided imagery on healthy adults, we examined stress hormone, saliva cortisol and mood status before and after yoga exercise. Twenty-five volunteers with mean age of 38.3 years (6 males and 19 females) participated in the session for 3.5 hours. Before and after the session, they answered a questionnaire covering shortened construction of a multiple mood scale (MMS), and a shortened questionnaire upon mental imagery (QMI) vividness of imagery scale and health practices.  We also collected saliva samples to measure salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) levels.  The group with the regular habit of doing yoga with this method (meditation, breathing, and self-guided imagery) showed lower scores of negative mood scale and higher scores of positive mood scale of MMS, lower levels of s-cortisol, and higher scores of QMI in common situation than those of the group without this regular habit. These results suggest that this method is associated with releasing tension or stress.
Keywords: imagery, meditation, s-cortisol, MMS, QMI, mood, psycho-neuro-endocrinological

The Effect of Olfactory Stimulus by Odor on Relaxation ― A Psychophysiological Study ―
Jae-do HAN1 and Akihiko UCHIYAMA 2
1. Public Health Research Center (Tokyo, Japan)
2. School of Science and Engineering, Waseda Univ. (Tokyo, Japan)
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relaxation effects of odor on the human body through the changes of physiological parameters after stress loading. Subjects were 6 healthy adults.  We measured electroencephalogram (EEG), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and respiratory rate (RR) as physiological parameters. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used for examining the psychological condition and Kraepelin test was used for loading stress for 15 minutes.  Lavender was used in the experiment, and a drop (0.05 ml) of essential oil was applied to the inner surface of the both wrists for each subject.  EEG results indicated that the power value of the α wave was expanded by the stimulus of odor. HR and SBP were significantly decreased upon application of odor (P<0.05).  RR was significantly changed upon its application (P<0.01).  These results suggest that odor is effective for human body relaxation against stress.
Keywords: autonomic nervous activity,EEG, HR, BP, RR,Kraepelin test,essential oil

Effects of Various Health Practices on Quality of Life: Estimation of a Health Promotion Program at Ohito Zuisenkyo
Tomoaki KIMURA1,2 , Yoichi OGUSHI1, Tetsuya SAKUMA 2, Yoshimi SUZUKAMO3 and Shunichi FUKUHARA3
1. Dept. of Medical Informatics, Tokai Univ. School of Medicine (Kanagawa, Japan)
2. MOA Health Science Foundation (Shizuoka, Japan)
3. Dept. of Epidemiology and Health Care Research, Kyoto Univ. Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health (Kyoto, Japan)
In 2001, health promotion programs were conducted twice at Ohito Zuisenkyo, a facility blessed with a beautiful natural environment, to measure changes of vital signs, psychological state using POMS, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using SF-36. The total number of participants was 24 persons, from which 20 subjects performed the programs twice in succession. Although no significant   change between before and after the first program was observed in the vital signs, the body fat ratio was significantly reduced and the peak flow was elevated in the second program. As for the psychological state, in both programs, significant improvements were found in all subscales of POMS. The score of 'physical functioning' in HRQOL significantly increased 3 months after. In a post-program questionnaire, most of the participants responded that they were pleased with the health promotion program, and had growing interest in their health, and then strove to achieve positive health in their daily lives. It was suggested that the effect of this program included not only direct effects of the program on its own, but also that staying at Ohito Zuisenkyo was a positive factor, and that the program played a role in motivation for health.
Keywords: quality of life, health promotion, vital signs, SF-36 questionnaire, POMS (Profile of Mood State), alternative therapy

Effects of Various Stimuli on the Elderly with Dementia
Keiko TATSUMI1, Yoshinori ADACHI 2 and Manabu ASHIKAGA1
1. Aino Gakuin Junior Coll. (Osaka, Japan)
2. Dept. of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu Univ. (Kasugai, Japan)
The stimulations of (1) group recreation activ-ity, (2) touching, and (3) ringing a bell are given to de-mented elderly subjects to learn what  kinds of effects are obtained by each stimulation.  The following are used in the analysis: HDS-R, GBS scales, blood pressures, pulse rates, neurometry, thermography, inquiries, etc.  In addi-tion, the particular personality of the demented elderly is found for personal relations and interests in the external-ity by carrying out a language association test for the subjects.  On the relevance between the language asso-ciation test and objective indices, statistical treatment is difficult because of the characteristics of the language association test.  The demented elderly subjects whose numerical values of the objective indices are good tend to appropriately react to the stimulus word in the language association test, and the validity of the objective indices is confirmed.
Keywords: elderly with dementia, group therapy, touching therapy, light exercise, neurometry, ther-mography

Measurement of Mental and Physical Conditions by Using the Change of Permittivity on Palms
Kazuhide UESUGI1, Shoji SUZUKI 1, Yoshinori ADACHI2, Yayoi NAKABAYASHI1 and Kazuhiro OOMAGARI 1
1. Kumamoto National College of Technology (Kumamoto, Japan)
2. College of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
A new system for measuring permittivity changes on palms by using noncontact poles is proposed.  In previous work, the equivalent circuit of a palm was simulated by a simple CR circuit quite well.  Changes of the mental and physical conditions of the human body were found to be determined by changes of C and R element values.  In this work, the palms are considered to be a dielectric, and the relative permittivity on them is determined by putting the palms between parallel-copper-poles.  As a result, the mental and physical conditions strongly affect the relative permittivity on palms.  Therefore it is possible to detect state changes of mental and physical conditions using the proposed system.
Keywords : permittivity, relative permittivity, dielectric, capacity, mental and physical, parallel-copper-pole

Comparison of the Physiology between Qigong and Relaxation States
Junichirou KOTAKE, Weizhong CHEN, Dmitri PARKHOMTCHOUK and Suzue HARAGUCHI
Yamamoto Bio-Emission Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
Abstract :
There are numerous changes in the physiology of subjects performing qigong.  It is supposed that special mental states influence the physiology.  In this work we compare physiological parameters (Electric Dynamic Analysis, respiration rate, blood flow, etc.) of a qigong phase and a rest phase.  The results is demonstrate physiology.  Which happened immediately after the transition from rest phase to qigong phase of the subject.  We found the subject has an ability to control body functions which cannot be controlled consciously by untrained people, but which can be controlled by subjects proficient in qigong.  
Keywords : mental concentration, physiological response, consciousness, qigong

Effects of Al-Pd-Mn Icosahedral Quasicrystals on Electroencephalogram
Takeo OKU1, Yoshihiko YOKOYAMA 2 and Takako OKU3
1. Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Osaka, Japan)
2. Himeji Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering (Hyogo, Japan)
3. Yamaha Music Foundation (Kyoto, Japan)
The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effects of Al-Pd-Mn icosahedral quasicrystals on brain waves through information transmission system. The quasicrystals were set at three meridian points (Yingtang, Danzhong and Dantian), and electroencephalogram measurements were performed. When the quasicrystals were set on the Danzhong, electroencephalogram intensity increased at all frequencies, and α 2-wave increased extremely. For superiority rates of brain waves, α 2-wave showed the highest value when the crystals were set at the Danzhong. The present results indicate that the quasicrystals would resonant with special meridian points.
Keywords: EEG, brain waves, meridian, meridian point, quasicrystal, icoshedral structure, crystal healing, Qi, β-wave, α-wave

Effects of Imagery on an Electroencephalogram and Pulse Waves
Takeo OKU1, Eri WATANABE 2, Sanae FUKUDA2 and Taro SHIRAKAWA2
1. Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Osaka, Japan)
2. Graduate School of Public Health, Kyoto University (Kyoto, Japan)
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effects of imagery at body parts with meridian points on an                                 electroencephalogram and pulse waves. Imagery of a sunlight incident at middle of forehead, breast and abdomen including Yingtang, Danzhong and Dantian and of filling body with sunlight showed a slowing of the electroencephalogram over the whole region during imagery. A remarkable increase of θ-waves and α1-waves was observed for a certain subject. A decrease of the pulse interval and an increase of the intensity of pulse waves were also observed.
Keywords: EEG, brain waves, meridian point, visualization, meditation, qi, β-wave, α-wave, θ-wave

Using Electrodermal Activity for Analysis of the Effect of Different Sense Stimulations on Humans
               Kiyoko SHIRAI, Yoshitake YAMAMOTO, Takao NAKAMURA, Toshimasa KUSUHARA and Hiroyuki OKUDA
                Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School (Okayama, Japan)

              The feelings of comfortableness and unpleasantness are the result of acts on the consciousness by information re-ceived through the five               senses. There are individual differences in grasping feelings by subjective information. Therefore, it is important to use an index with                       objectivity. In this study, we ex-amined the effect of two different sense stimulations on humans. We used an impedance method which is               a good index to know a person’s emotion. The subjects were 8 adults. Sense of touch stimulation was given to the back with a massage                 machine. Classic music was used for the hearing stimulation. The meas-urement conditions were both at the same time and individually.               The subjects reacted sensitively to the sense of touch stimulation. On the other hand, the hearing stimulation reaction was dull. For the                     sense of touch stimulation, the subject’s condition after stimulation in SIR did not return to the control condition before stimulation. We                     supposed that the sense of touch stimulation had some effect on humans. For two simultaneous stimulations, the reaction was different                   from that of the single stimulation. From these things, we clarified that various sense stimulations were affecting on humans. We can                       expect that application of sense stimulation gives an enhanced cure effect.

Keywords: sense stimulation, electrodermal activity (EDA), music therapy, massage, relaxation

Neural Activity Crrelated with Intra- or Cross-modal Cued Illusory Line Motion: An fMRI Study
Hiroki C. TANABE1 and Toshio YANAGIDA 1, 2
When a cue is presented and followed by a line, we perceive that the line elongates from the cued side (Illusory Line Motion; ILM).  This visual motion illusion effect is produced by both captured (stimulus-induced) and voluntary attention, and by both intra- and cross-modal cues, suggesting that a modality non-specific neural mechanism is concerned.  To investigate neural correlates of this illusion, we studied this issue by employing fMRI and psychophysical experiments.  The results showed that neural activities corresponding to this illusion well-agreed with those of spatial attention, suggesting that this illusion is based on stimulus-modality non-specific visuo-spatial attention.  In addition, hMT+ activation was correlated with conscious perception, indicating that subjective perception of visual motion is founded on this area's activation.
Keywords: fMRI, illusory line motion, crossmodality, conscious perception, neural correlates of consciousness, spatial attention

Brain Imaging of Respiratory Overloads
1. Department of Informatics on Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan)
2. Respiratory Division, Sendai National Hospital (Sendai, Japan)
3. Department of Tracer Kinetics, Osaka University Medical School (Osaka, Japan)
4. Division of Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan)
Abstract :
Respiration is controlled involuntarily by medullary respiratory centers in the pons and voluntarily through the motor cortex. It also has an intimate relation to emotions. The aim of this study was to examine effects of respiration on regional brain activities by using a brain imaging technique, positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping. Twenty-eight male normal volunteers, 30.2 years (SD 8.6), were divided into three groups: control (without resistance), group 30 (mild inspiratory resistance of 30 cm H2O/L/sec), group 70 (moderate inspiratory resistance of 70 cm H2O/L/sec). PET studies were carried out by injecting 191.51 MBq (SD 69.42) of FDG at one minute after applying the inspiratory resistance (groups 30 and 70) which lasted for 30 min or during resting breathing (control group) using a PET scanner. Image processing and statistical analyses were carried out using the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99; Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Queens Square, London, UK)1. Comparison among all groups showed extensive activation and deactivation. Respiratory loads activated the motor area, frontal lobe and temporal pole bilaterally; an extensive reduction in brain metabolism was found in the posterior part of the brain including the parietal lobe.
\Keywords : Respiration, Brain, Metabolism, Dyspnea, loaded breathing, FDG, PET.

Acupuncture and Swallowing Reflex in Post-stroke Patients
Takashi SEKI, Masayuki KURUSU, Haruko TANJI, Hiroyuki ARAI, Hidetada SASAKI
Department of Geriatric and Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University School of Medicine (Sendai, Japan)
Pneumonia is the fourth leading cause of death in Japan. Impairment of the swallowing reflex is a significant factor to developing silent aspiration in post-stroke patients. We examined 41 patients with old cerebral infarction or bleeding. The latency time in the swallowing reflex was measured before and after the acupuncture. Substance P levels in the saliva and plasma were quantified and these values were compared before and 30 min after the acupuncture. There were significant improvements in the latency time in the swallowing reflex 30 min after the acupuncture. The beneficial effects of acupuncture on the swallowing reflex continued for up to seven days.
Keywords: acupuncture, swallowing reflex, post-stroke, aspiration pneumonia, dysphagia

Brain Blood Volume Change Under an ESP Task Measured by Optical Topography
Hideo YOICHI 1, Hideyuki KOKUBO 1, Weizhong CHEN 1 , Tong ZHANG 1, Suzue HARAGUCHI 1,
Kimiko KAWANO 2 and Mikio YAMAMOTO 1
1. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2. Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
In the present study, we measured changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) in the       temporal lobes to identify the brain activities during ESP task by utilizing optical topography, a newly developed technique based on   near-infrared photometry. The results of two males subjects varied in different trials. Although oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb kept unchanged during ESP task and control conditions in most trial, in two trial, oxy-Hb increased remarkably and rapidly while deoxy-Hb decreased in the same way, with the right temporal lobe more significant than the left. Furthermore, the investigations of the subjects suggested the possible relation between this kind of changes and the subjective estimation about the results of ESP task.
Keywords:  guess,  ESP,  Zener card, oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, optical topography, near-infrared photometry

Effects of Meridian Point Stimulation on an Electroencephalogram by Light-Emitting Diodes
Takeo OKU1 and Hiroo INDO 2
1. Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Osaka, Japan)
2. TMR Oriental Medicine Clinic, Choushindou (Kanagawa, Japan)
The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of meridian point stimulation on an electroencephalogram through an     information- transmission system by light-emitting diode. Three kinds of light emitting diodes were irradiated on the Laogong point; the electroencephalogram showed strong intensity around the vision field in the brain. In addition, strong intensities of β-waves and α-waves were promoted by blue light irradiation.
Keywords: EEG, meridian, meridian point, LED, brain wave stimulation, Qi, α-wave

Brain Wave Coherence Function in Remote Action Experiments - Rank Sum Test vs. Welch’s Test -
Tomoko KOKADO1, Nobuo FUKUDA 1, Kimiko KAWANO2, 1   and Mikio YAMAMOTO1
1. Yamamoto Bio-Emission Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2. Centre for Informatics and Sciences, Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
The sender of a martial art expert pair attempted to send qi to the receiver in a sensory–shielded state under randomized and blind     conditions. The receiver’s electroencephalograms were treated by Fast Fourier Transform and used for coherence function. Coherence function indicates the correlation between measurements of brain waves obtained with two electrodes. Correlations of C3:C4, Fz:Pz and O1:O2 were examined. Some pairs of coherence function groups for different conditions were examined by the rank sum test and Welch’s test. A statistically significant difference has been previously observed in the α wave amplitude between the sending and non-sending time zones by Welch’s test. This α wave amplitude between two different time zones was rank sum tested. The probability that the O1:O2 coherence function group in the sending time and the group in the resting time had the same distribution was under 5% by both rank sum and Welch’s tests. The α wave amplitude at C4 was also 0.5% significant by the rank sum test. The practical conclusion is that the result by the rank sum test is similar to that of Welch’s test.
Keywords: coherence function, randomized and blind condition, FFT, EEG, rank sum test, Welch’s test

Inner Expression By Drawing
Mie CROSS and Hiromi SHIBUYA
Art Therapy Promotion Committee of Japan (Tokyo, Japan)
We analysed 400 inner expression picture samples given a theme of a certain emotion to see if there are common tendencies in their colors or forms.  The themes we chose were anger, anxiety, or joy as we thought subjects can easily imagine something with them. We found one group showing all three themes as abstract drawings and another group showing them as concrete drawings. All subjects showed a common tendency in their drawings.
Keywords: drawing, inner expression, inner world, commonness, beyond individualization

Influence on Brain Waves of Appreciating a Picture
Mie CROSS and Hiromi SHIBUYA
Art Gallery Soh, Inc.(Tokyo, Japan)
Changes of emotion in viewing a picture were measured by brain waves with an emotion identification system. Picture No.1 was by  Dali, No .2  by Lautrec, and No.3 by Sam Francis. Two subjects viewed each pictures for 5 minutes. Subjects' brain waves were evaluated based on four emotion indexes (relaxation, sadness, joy and anger). The two subjects showed a strong pattern of anger to all three pictures. The pictures used for this study represented highly individualized styles of painting. Therefore, they were considered to have possibly  evoked a strong feeling .
Keywords: art, picture, influence the mind, brain waves, Dali, Lautrec, Sam Francis

Change in Intellectual and Physiological Functions of 1550 Persons Who Learned Kurita's Speed Reading System for Ten Days
Masahiro KURITA
Gunma Paz Gakuen College (Gunma, Japan)
Kurita's Speed Reading System was proposed in 1987. A consistent education started in 1991, and 393 classes ended by 2002. The purpose of the training is to shift the conventional paradigm of character information to a new method which consists of "distributed input, parallel processing, and integrated output". The points of the training are to use the mind and body correlation in an original way, to activate the route from the peripheral visual field to the subconsciousness, to establish a new transfer method of information processing, and to improve intellectual activity. The degree of improvement of intellectual function through ten-day beginner's training classes was examined in this study. Twenty two courses of ten days for ten weeks were held from 1995 to 2002 in Tokyo. Subjects were 1550 adult participants of these classes. The reading speeds before the training were 870 characters/min on average. The reading speed after the training was 22959 characters/min on average, and the magnification became 26 times on average. The calculation speed (Number of single digit addition performed within one minute. Index of work efficiency.) went to 101 points on average from 71 points on average, and showed an average efficiency improvement of 42%. The maze unraveling speed (Number of unit mazes unraveled within 20 seconds. Index of cognitive ability.) became 21 points on average from 7 points, and increased by a factor of 3.0 on average. The vigor degree of the body has been improved, too. These results suggested that it is universally possible to cause such an eminent change in a general adult.
Keywords: Kurita's speed reading, information processing, subconsciousness, intellectual function, reading speed, work efficiency, potential ability, intelligent development

Report on changes in brain waves of the frontal lobe and in Ryodouraku measurement data caused by healing with energy-irradiated waters, rock crystal, etc.
Nishimoto Daini Clinic (Wakayama, Japan)
The human body is an aggregate of from 60 trillion to 100 trillion cells.  Each cell fulfils a task ordered by genes.  The material aspect of energy produced by mitochondria in the citric acid cycle of an individual cell has already been scientifically elucidated.  Presently,   researches are under way on the possibility that the human body is influenced by some subtler and unknown energy.  In the East, the   energy is referred to as“qi”.  It is also described as the origin of all organisms, of the universe.  In 1978, equipment that irradiated the   energy acting favorably for living organisms was developed by Mr. Noguchi of Noguchi General Laboratory.  During its development, crops grown with 2 kinds of energy -irradiated waters (Gingasui, Noguchi Catalyzer 21) as well as fertilizers showed a marvelous quality.  Since then, healing using these energy- irradiated waters and crystal has caught more notice.  Pain reduction was observed from actual experiences.  This time, research was done on how the effect of this healing on living organisms was expressed in brain waves and qi current and the results are reported here.
Keywords: qigong, energy therapy, ryodouraku, brain waves, crystal, pain reduction

Case Report on Anomalous Electro-Magnetic Signals
Hideyuki KOKUBO, Suzue HARAGUCHI, Masahide FURUKAWA and Mikio YAMAMOTO
National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
In Gifu province of Japan in 2000, many residents of an apartment claimed that enigmatic phenomena had occurred repeatedly: for example, strange sounds, the apparition of a ghost, movement of materials, and electric tools working without a power supply. The authors tried to detect specific signals of magnetic fields there. The investigation was conducted from November 15th to 17th in 2000. The magnetometers were of the semiconductor type (10 nT, DC-10 kHz) and the flux-gate type (1nT, DC-20 Hz). The outputs of the magnetometers were recorded by a DAT tape recorder at 2 kHz, and then the outputs of the DAT recorder were recorded by a computer at 200 Hz through a universal interface unit and an AD converter. The results of the three-day investigation showed no anomalous magnetic signals. However, two spontaneous anomalous electric signals were observed. An analysis of 14-minute data includes one of the signals showed small two peaks in frequency spectrum. The peaks shifted by 3-5 Hz per minute, and then crossed each other in the spectrum. The anomalous electric signal appeared resonantly after cross-over. However; the reason for this phenomenon was not identified.
Keywords: recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis (RSPK), poltergeist, electromagnetic, spectrum, peak shift, resonance

Niwa Treatment for 20 Years
(1) Secret key to develop biological medicines with effectiveness from natural plants and seeds
(2) Introduction of several biological medicines with clinical effectiveness
(3) Topical immunosuppressive agent (“T” ointment) used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis under the rubric of “steroid free treatment” shows potential carcinogenesis
Yukie NIWA
Tosashimizu Hospital (Tosashimizu, Japan)
Twenty years ago, my son of seven years old suffered from acute myelotic leukemia (AML), and treated with chemotherapy for one year and three months. He died with the greatest pain due to cytotoxic chemotherapy, but not due to leukemia itself. I had treated more than one hundred of the patients with malignancies administered with chemotherapy and radiation before the onset of AML of my son, and almost all of them were dead not due to malignancy itself but due to side effect of chemotherapy and radiation. However, I had been not much impressed to be surprised to see these facts; they were not my family. Since I experienced the most severely painful and miserable death of my son, I thought that main-stream treatment including these cytotoxic treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation do not save the patients while non main-stream treatment, biological medicine including Chinese herbs and health products do the patients neither. Since then, I have been devoted in developing natural medicinal products with clinical effectiveness to treat the malignant patients without side-effects. From twelve years ago, I have succeeded in producing cancer-cidal agents and antioxidants with effectiveness from natural plants and seeds. Besides, topical immunosuppressive agent (“T” agent) widely used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) under the rubric of “steroid free treatment” has been found to induce carcinogenesis in the skin of mice in our laboratory. Our experiment regarding this carcinogenetic effect of topical “T” agent is explained in this paper.
Keywords: potentiation of bioavailability in natural materials, biological medicine, topical immunosuppressive agent, appearance of skin cancer, side effect of chemotherapy, side effect of immunosuppressive agent

Exploratory Study of Relationships between Physical Entropy and Global Human Attention
Dean Radin
Institute of Noetic Sciences (California, USA)
Examination of intercorrelations among the outputs of isolated, continuously operating, electronic truly random number generators (RNG) located around the world revealed that the largest daily average intercorrelation in the year 2001 occurred on September 11, 2001.  That day experienced an extraordinary amount of worldwide, mass attention, associated with unprecedented terrorist attacks on the United States.  To study this coincidence in more general terms, an analysis was conducted examining the relationship between objective daily measures of world-wide news events vs. daily average RNG intercorrelation values, over a one-year period.  The prediction was a positive relationship, and the results were significantly positive (p = 0.004).  This suggests that entropic fluctuations simultaneously observed in truly random, isolated systems may be meaningfully linked to events that attract mass human attention.  One interpretation of these observations is that mind and matter are linked in fundamental ways.
Keywords: mind-matter interaction, randomness, global consciousness

The development of a bio-sensor for the state of consciousness in a human intentional healing ritual
Eduard P.A. VAN WIJK 1 and Roeland VAN WIJK 1,2
1. International Institute of Biophysics (Neuss, Germany)
2. Faculty of Biology, Utrecht University (Utrecht, The Netherlands)
Several research groups have obtained experimental evidence in favor of the idea that changes in RNG randomness are manifested during group gatherings with strong emotional intensity even in the absence of any RNG-directed conscious attention. We have extended this line of thinking and have focussed on the consiousness-mediated act of healing during a healer-patient ritual, and have considered what happens inside another living non-human organism that was present only as a witness of the event and was certainly not the object of any directed intention. For experimental testing of this idea we used the process of photon emission of Acetabularia acetabulans cells.  We report on the photon emission data of this organism during a series of experiments consisting of 36 healing sessions. The periods of healer-patient interaction were alternated by non-healing periods. Neither healer nor patient were aware of the type of measurements that took place. Primary data analysis indicated that the Acetabularia cells show some remarkable alterations in photon count distributions during the ritual of healer-patient sessions. We suggested that given the high degree of organization of a bio-sensor, some periodicities might be hidden in the data that were produced in the time-series of 17 min duration with observations made at 1 sec. As a first approach we estimated the power spectrum of photon emission and compared the intensities and periods of the major peaks. In the experimental healing segments the average intensity of the 20 major peaks is larger than of the corresponding control segments. The changes in power during healing are manifested specifically in a decrease of peaks in the range of periods between 2.5-6 s and an increase in the range between 10-20 s.
Keywords : bio-photon, photon count analysis, healing practice, intentional healing, Acetabularia acetabulans  

Temperature and Biophoton Changes of the Middle Finger during Qigong and Light Imagery Tasks
Weizhong CHEN1, Tong ZHANG 1, Hideo YOICHI1, Junichirou KOTAKE1, Suzue HARAGUCHI 1, Hideyuki KOKUBO1,
Kimiko KAWANO2,1 and Mikio YAMAMOTO1
1. National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2. Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
The authors have previously measured physiological changes for subjects during Qigong and light imagery tasks. A skilled Qigong     trainer’s skin surface temperature of the middle finger decreased during Qigong compared with the value at rest measured by             thermography. Moreover, the biophpoton count radiated from the middle finger increased during light imagery task compared with the count at rest measured by PMT. In the present study, a beginner in Qigong and non-trained subjects performed the same experiment. The beginner had a remarkable increase of skin surface temperature of the middle finger during Qigong compared with the temperature at rest (maximum difference was 3.3℃, P=0.046<5% in a two-sided  t-test), and an untrained female showed her middle finger radiated more biophotons when she did a light imagery task. These results suggested that skin temperature and physiological metabolism might be influenced by Qigong and light imagery tasks.
Keywords: consciousness concentration, finger, qigong, light imagery, skin surface temperature, thermography, biophoton

[Original Research Papers]  Peer Reviewed

Inner Quality: Influence and Assessment in the Case of Selected Ornamental Plants
Jurgen MATSCHKE, Fritz-Albert POPP and Markus RICHTE
1. Gartenbauzentrum der Landwirtschaftskammer Westfalen-Lippe (Munster-Wolbeck, Germany)
2. Institut fur Biophysik, Station Hombroich (Neuss, Germany)
The goal of the plant grower is a continuous improvement of the quality of ornamental plants.  Therefore, an unambiguous and objective assessment of quality is needed.  In order to investigate this problem, some ornamental plants (this paper is focused on the example of Euphorbia pulcherrima) were selected after variable growth to compare the parameters of biophotonics with the results of conventional shelf-life tests.  It turned out that biophotonics was valuable in determining the potential shelf-life of the plants after harvest, preferably by taking the leaves as subjects of investigation and by following well-defined measuring protocols.
inner quality, biophotonics, shelf-life, holistic assessment, light stores

EEG Changes Induced by Odor Effects after Stress of Long Monotonous Work; Application of Nonlinear Analysis Based on Chaos Dynamics
Kenji TAKEZAWA, Mahito KIMURA, Takao MORI and Shunkichi ENDO
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
Based on the findings of previous studies, we used nonlinear analysis of EEGs to investigate the effects of odor stimuli applied after the stress of monotonous work.  Eight healthy adults who took the Uchida-Kraepelin test of working capability as mental working stress were subjects.  Immediately after a post-stress session, subjects were exposed to odor or control stimuli.  EEGs were concurrently recorded for 2 minutes.  Psychological tests indicated that subjective fatigue and trait anxiety levels increased after stress loading, suggesting that subjects were placed under mental and physical stress.  Both subjective Nonlinear analysis of EEGs indicated that Dc in the post-stress session was lower than in the pre-stress session.  The subsequent odor stimuli induced an increase in Dc.  Correlations were observed between ΔDc and stress and stimuli, and changes were significant in the occipital and left parietal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.  Our study demonstrated that the effect of odor stimuli on the human body might be associated with higher cerebral function, such as favorite odors and psychological changes including emotional alteration.
Keywords: chaos dynamics, nonlinear analysis, correlation dimension, odor stimuli, EEG

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Last Modified: October11, 2002