International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS)

Journal of International Society of
Life Information Science

Vol.19, No.2, September 2001
ISSN 1341-9226



[Original Research Papers] Peer reviewed
Law of Discriminability in Perceptual and Electromagnetic Tests
Svetlana B. NORINA and Boris B. KOSSOV
This study established a common law for perception by known sensoric ways and for human electromagnetic sensitivity under ultra weak pulsating magnetic fields. Stimuli distinguished by tested persons were ultra a weak magnetic field, and combined magnetic and light stimuli. Possible general mechanisms of interactions were shown between external electromagnetic fields used in magnetic therapy and human electromagnetic fields, particularly, as produced by the aorta-carotid-sinus loop. If external fields were close in intensities and directions to ambient human electromagnetic fields, behavior seemed to be like a superposition of them. The effect of resonant mechanical vibrations was detected and it was found that the time to establish resonant mechanical human skin vibrations as a response of tested subjects could be used as a new quantitative reproducible characteristic. It depended on the mutual orientation of an external pulsating magnetic field and the aorta-carotid-sinus loop. But the effect did not depend on the intensity of exposed pulsating magnetic fields in range from 0.1 microTesla to 100 picoTesla under the optimal orientation. This new fact could have a practical application for the optimization of magnetotherapy treatment.
Keywords: electromagnetic sensitivity, biophotonics, human perception, discriminability, biomagnetism, coherence
EEG Changes in Odor Effects after the Stress of Long Monotonous Work
Mahito KIMURA, Takao MORI, Hiroko SUZUKI, Shunkichi ENDO and Kimiko KAWANO
Odor effects after the stress task (Uchida-Kraeppelin test) were evaluated by EEG changes in 8 normal adults. The subjects were exposed to 4 odors (peppermint, bergamot, lavender, sandalwood) and the control (air). The amplitude of the slow alpha amplitude increased just after the stress task, which may indicate cortical deactivation. When exposed to the 4 odors or control (air), the latter had increased delta and theta amplitude, while the former had no increase. Peppermint significantly increased beta1 and beta2 amplitudes compared with the other odors. These results suggest that the odor stimuli may prevent reduction of arousal level after the stress task, peppermint especially raised the arousal level, which may indicate an excited effect.

Keywords: odor, EEG, stress, arousal level, Uchida-Kraeppelin test

The Twelfth Symposium on Life Information Science

August 25-26, 2001, Tokyo Denki University

[Proceedings] Without Peer Review

A Study on the Relationship between alpha-waves and Business Performance (Part IV)
-Examining whether awareness of out-of-the-park home runs will affect business performance-
Akiyoshi OSHIMA
Part II of this study found that it is possible to enhance business performance by making plans for significant achievements (out-of-the-field home runs). Part IV focuses on the impact of awareness of such plans on business performance. Factors for realizing significant achievements were clarified through experiments and measurements. It was also examined whether it is possible to increase alpha-waves by (1) massaging the feet and (2) saying prayers at the time of alpha-wave measurements.

Keywords: alpha-wave, training, business, performance, planning, insight

A Study on Physiological Changes in Shaolin Internal Qigong
Qiang LI,Yoshimasa MATSUURA, Shinji TSUBOUCHI, Qiming Li and Norinaga SHIMIZU
In this study, the biological reactions of the respiro-circulatory system were analyzed in order to clarify the mechanisms of physiological changes during exercises of Shaolin Internal Qigong. The subject was a 55-year old man, who has practiced Shaolin Internal Qigong for over 40 years. During the exercises, his heart rate ranged from 66 to 77% of the maximum heart rate, the oxygen uptake ranged from 31 to 45% of the maximum oxygen uptake, and the ratings of perceived exertion (R.P.E.) ranged from 4 to 6. Increase of lactate acid in the blood, pulmonary ventilation and respiratory efficiency were recognized to compare with their rest values. Blood pressure and breathing frequency did not change. Thus, these exercises improved respiratory efficiency by the maximum isometric muscle contraction while they maintained natural breathing. In addition, Shaolin Internal Qigong was considered to influence the reflex system because it inhibited both blood pressure increase and respiratory rate change which are usually observed during the maximum isometric muscle contraction.
Keywords: Shaolin Internal Qigong, respiratory efficiency, blood pressure, heart rate,

oxygen uptake, isometric muscle contraction
Immune Responses during Remote Qi Emission
Yuzo HIGUCHI, Kimiko KAWANO, Yasunori KOTANI, Yoshitsugu HAYASHI,
Hironobu HIGUCHI, Tadashi SATO and Shinichiro MOMOSE
Three qigong masters having high-level qigong techniques participated in a remote qi emission experiment. The receivers assigned to the respective qigong masters were at a distance of approximately 2 to 4 km away. levels of Natual Killer (NK) cell activity, Interleukin (IL)-2, and CD4/CD8 in venous blood were simultaneously measured for any changes. Forty minutes after remote qi emission was conducted, the following changes were detected: the NK cell activity increased to a significant level, IL-2 showed a tendency to increase, and CD4/CD8 decreased. It was acknowledged that remote qi emission effected such changes, which were similar to the results obtained from an experiment on regular qigong therapy, suggesting that remote qi emission improves the immune function of the qi receivers.

Keywords: remote qi emission, NK cell activity, IL-2, CD4/CD8

Visited Report of North American Activities
-Institute Related to Human Potential in the USA and Canada and
the twentieth Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration-
Mikio YAMAMOTO, Hideyuki KOKUBO, Kimiko KAWANO and Mami KIDO
the authors visited several institutes carrying out research on anomalous cognition and anomalous perturbation in the United States and Canada from June 4 to June 18, 2001. The authors also attended the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration. About 40 presentations of studies on anomalous somatic functions, cognitive sciences, biophysics, etc. were reported in the meeting. Many researchers studied common topics with Japanese researchers. Therefore acceleration of research exchange would be profitable for each other. In North America, there are many studies on healing, induction of altered states of consciousness by magnetic fields, mind-matter interaction by random number generator. A global project also has done via the internet. Each institute has substantial facilities and produces high quality results. In Japan too, development of facilities and improvement of the quality of studies are needed.
Keywords: USA, Canada, human potential, institute, society, parapsychology, anomalous somatic function
Development of a Measuring System for nT-order magnetic Fields and
Electrostatic Fields Generated near a Human Body
Hideo YOICHI, Hideyuki KOKUBO and Mikio YAMAMOTO
In this study a system was developed that could measure nT-order magnetic fields and electrostatic field generated near a human body at normal temperature. The problem of the usual system that used a small magnetic shielding case (double box type) to cover the subject's palm/hands was improved by fixing the hands in non-contact condition, preventing the deformation of the shield case, ventilating inside the case compulsorily and installing the 3-axis type Hall magnetometer. Another improvement was the installation of 3-axis flux gate magnetometers and a electrostatic field meter (capacitance vibration system) in behind of the subject in order to measure the magnetic and electrostatic fields outside of the small magnetic shielding case. The preliminary measurements were made for ordinary persons (eight subjects) and qigong masters/ students (two subjects). Changes of magnetic fields larger than 1nT/min and electrostatic fields larger than 0.001kV were not measured. In further study, temperature correction data, data of artifacts of background noise, data of magnetic fields sensors and electrostatic fields sensors were necessary to be collected and analyzed.

Keywords: magnetic field, nT, electrostatic field, qigong, human body, human hands,
measuring system, somatic science, anomalous

Influences of an Interference-Offset Field Produced by a Shield Line
Non-Induction Coil on Skin Electrodermal Activities and Carrageenin-Induced Edema
Takashi AOKI
 An interference-offset field was produced around a shield line non-inductive coil through which an electric current was passed. This field does not have a magnetic field and a vector potential field. When human subjects were irradiated using this interference-offset field, statistically significant changes in the electrodermal activities of the skin were recorded, suggesting that the field affects the autonomous nervous system. In addition, the volume of carrageenin-induced edema of paws in rats was significantly correlated with irradiation intensity (electrical current in the coil). Therefore, this is interference-offset field has an actual effect, although the magnetic field and the vector potential field went out of existence by interference.



Keywords: irradiation effect, interference field, non-induction, vector potential, biological influence of magnetic field, electrodermal activity, edema, qigong
Spectrum Analysis of Effects of Gauge Field Generated by a Toroidal Coil System
Yoshinori ADACHI, Takashi AOKI and Yasuo YOSHIFUKU
Effects of the gauge field generated by a toroidal coil system on aqueous solutions (a mineral water, and green tea and coffee brewed using the mineral water), which are the non-living substances, were examined using ultraviolet and visible spectra and infrared spectra. Remarkable changes were found especially in the infrared absorption spectra. The infrared absorption spectra were related to the motion of the molecules, and the possibility that the gauge field generated by the toroidal coil system caused some effects for molecular clusters in water was indicated.



Keywords: toroidal coil, gauge field, vector potential, mineral water, green tea, coffee, qigong
Trends of Study on Ki in East Asia and Construction of A Database
Soonshik SHIN, Heejung KANG, Yongseok CHUNG, Kwangbin SONG and Kyeongcheol KIM
The study of ki in East Asia (South Korea, China, Japan) is mostly concerned with human health, disease and bio-information. The study of health and bio-information is investigated by theoretical and practical methods for meditation, qigong, bio energy (life energy), psychic response and physical response. A meta analysis of research groups can prevent error in research experiments, and improve

the efficiency of future research by knowing previously tried methods. We analyzed the equipment and the "ki-ology" trends of Asia (South Korea: Korea Jungshin Science Association; China: Chinese Society
of Somatic Science; Japan: International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS)), and then established an electronic documentary journal for these three countries in the form of a database (DB).

Keywords: ki, research trend, academic society, journal, database, Korea, China, Japan

Functional Brain Mapping during Electrical Stimulation of the Hegu, an Acuspot of the Hand
Masatoshi ITOH, Masatoshi ENDO, Motoyori KANAZAWA, masayasu MIYAKE, Myongi JOENG,
Keiichiro YAMAGUCHI and Shin FUKUDO
Stimulation of acupuncture spots is known to activate the brain. In this study the Hegu, a major acuspot of the hand was stimulated by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) and regional brain function was evaluated by blood flow mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). The timing of PET and TENS was controlled so that the brain was scanned during, 1 min after, and 3 min after TENS stimulations which lasted for 70 seconds. Statistical parametric analysis using SPM99 revealed substantial activations in the thalamus, anterior cingulated, reticular formation, basofrontal area, and postcentral gyrus. These brain activations gradually diminished with time and only the lateral part of the cerebellum remained active 3 min after TENS. The results support the idea that TENS stimulation of an acuspot activates neural networks related to sensory perception and emotion.
Keywords: positron emission tomography, acupuncture, brain blood flow, TENS, brain activation



Biophoton Change by Mental Concentration
Suzue HARAGUCHI, Junichiro KOTAKE, Weizhong CHEN, Dmitri V. PARKHOMTCHOUK,
Biophoton is ultra weak light that a living body or living tissue radiates spontaneously. In the present experiment, measurement of change in biophotons of the fingertip due to mental concentration was done using a biophoton imaging system. Seven subjects from the general public did a rest then mental concentration or control for 10 minutes, another mental concentration or control for 10minutes and an interview. In the results, Intensity of biophotons of the fingertip changed due to the mental concentration, and the change was classified into two kinds.

Keywords: biophoton, mental concentration, finger, life activity

A Study of the Meridian-Meridian Point Effect by Using Photo Signals
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze meridian functions as an intelligent system of a living organism, which have not been verified in terms of scientific data yet. Twelve men and women, aged from 11 to 80, were irradiated using a light emitting diode (LED) without direct contact at points on the palms and feet. Their reactions were as shown in each variable in the AMI. The author analyzed bedside changes of the subjects carefully and confirmed that the living body's reactions varied with the difference of wavelength and treating time of the light. These results suggest that the meridians are a hidden system, unrelated to the nervous system and receptors, without stimulation by minute photo signals.
Keywords: meridian, hidden system, Yin-Yang, five elements, LED, signal, A-B-A, BP
[Special Lecture 1]

A Consideration on Research for Anomalous Phenomena with Devices for Photon Detection
-Studies in Japan and China-
Hideyuki KOKUBO

The author reviewed Japanese and Chinese researches for anomalous phenomena with devices for photon detection. The research can be divided into four types depending on the aim or task: 1) the experimental task is to make light appear, 2) to detect light near the targets during clairvoyance or psychokinesis; 3) to measure bio-photons as an indicator of anomalous effects on a living body; 4) to use a property of the device. Results suggested that anomalous light (or similar events) had common properties; the environment around subjects could be considered to affect the properties of anomalous phenomena which occurred near the targets; devices could detect anomalies near the subject's body during psi task.

Keywords: light, photon, parapsychology, anomalous phenomena, thoughtography, Japan, China

[Special Lecture 2]

The History and Present Status of Wai Qi Therapy
Zaiwen SHEN

Wai Qi therapy, as well as some life (Qi) energy treatments are gaining a lot of interest in society. Wai Qi therapy is one treatment method of Traditional Chinese Medicine with a long history, but it has developed rapidly in the last 30 years. Wai Qi therapy is used for many illnesses including some intractable diseases. Although the results of many scientific experiments on Wai Qi therapy have been announced, it has not yet gained the respect it deserves and many objections are still raised against it. This lecture introduces its history and characteristics as well as current clinical treatments and scientific research, so that Wai Qi therapy may be better understood and further developed.
Keywords: Qigong, Wai Qi therapy
Attendance at the "First World Symposium on Self-Healing & Consciousness Power"
Yoshio MACHI and Chao LIU
The Physiological Study of Ki in Ki Aikido (2)
Yoshio MACHI, CHao LIU Koichi TOHEI, Toshiaki ISHIZAKI, Tsutomu HAMAOKA
and Setsuo KODATO
As a way to study Ki in Ki Aikido, an experiment on the unbendable arm was carried out, where physiological measurements were made to confirm that Ki is not a physical power. Through analysis of the data collected , it could be concluded that even in the state of extending Ki, about half of the sympathetic nerve system was activated compared with the state of relying only on the physical power. It was also seen that exhalation was critical when the arm was unbendable, suggesting it relates to Ki strength, which is complementely different from the physical power force in stoppingb respiration.
Kewwords: Heart rate, R point voltage, Ki respiration, EEG topography
Physiological Measurements of Non-Visual RecognitionYoshio MACHI and Chao LIU
We carried out clairvoyance experiments and measured several physiological values to clarify the phenomenon of clairvoyance. We found that the subject's sympathetic nerve system acted strongly and continuously and her parasympathetic nerve system strengthened instantaneously. Both blood flows at her neck and forehead were increased. Furthermore, her blood pressure increased and oxygen level in the blood decreased. We thought these effects were because her brain consumed so much oxygen and also energy. A vibration phenomenon was found in the GSR data. EEG topography showed her visual area and the frontal lobe were becoming active when this phenomenon appeared. Electrical potential of those places rose impulsively; when the potential between two points rose, those points were connected. We found that physiological data changed greatly when activity of the right brain side became high in the frontal lobe in particular.



Keywords: Clairvoyance, Physiology, EEG, ECG, Blood pressure, Temperature, Blood flow, Autonomous nerve system, Vibration signal from GSR
[Special Lecture 3]

 Study on the Mechanism of Contraction of Disease and the Method of Treatment
in Oriental Medicine

In Oriental medicine, the power to prevent disease and to sustain the health, namely, the life force and the power of resistance, is called Zheng Qi (Sei-ki). In contrast, the force that brings on disease.i.e.the power to disturb health, is called Xie(Ja). Xie is divided into two kinds: one that appears in the outer world of natural phenomena, and the other, within the body. In Oriental medicine, the mechanism of contraction of disease, fundamental understanding of disease conditions, and the principle methods of treatment are theorized on the basis of Zheng Qi and Xie. Disease is contracted under the following two conditions. The first is a condition in which Zheng Qi is weakened (the shortage of Zheng Qi). This is called Xu Zheng. The second is a condition in which Xie overpowers Zheng Qi. The second condition is further devided into two cases: one where Zheng Qui is normal, and the other where Zheng Qui is weakened. The former is called Shi Zheng, and the latter, the combination of Shi Zheng and Xu Zheng, or the mixed condition of Xu Shi. Shi Zheng and Xu Zheng are fundamental concepts for comprehending the disease conditions. For Shi Zheng, the principle method of treatment is to get rid of Xie; this treatment is called Qu Xie Fa. For Xu Zheng, the principle method is to reinforce Zheng Qi, which is called Bu Fa or Fu Zheng Fa



Keywords:oriental Medicine, Xie, Zheng Qi, Shi Zheng, Xu Zheng Oriental
[Mini Symposium A Remote Action Experiment]
An Experiment on Remote Action against Man in Sensory-Shielding Condition (Part III)
Masataka TANAKA, Dmitri V. PARKHOMTCHOUK, Takao SOMA and Kimiko KAWANO
A phenomenon called "toh-ate" is performed by a mineral arts expert or a qigong master (sender) on an opponent (receiver) at a distance of several meters. When the sender applies toh-ate, the receiver steps back rapidly without being touched. The results of many experiments performed by our group have shown that this phenomenon involves something beyond mere suggestion. To avoid the element of suggestion, all our experiments were conducted under randomized, double-blind conditions with the sender and receiver located in separate rooms.

In our past experiments involving practitioners who exercise toh-ate daily, the frequency histgram of the time differences between sending (qi-emission) and receiving (response) has a large peak around zero. This phenomenon is statistically significant. We have published papers on them in this journal since 1996, including some on brain waves and electrodermal activity as well as other physiological data.
We report here that in a similar toh-ate experiment, but with a different pair of experts who have been practicing a discipline for many years, the attacker did not create any atmosphere of menace before an attack, and that the defender felt presentiment of the attack and made a defense. Three large peaks occurred around-41 (p=3.7%)sec, 0 sec(13.4), +36sec(1.3) in the frequency histogram. The poisson upper-sided risk values are shown between the parentheses. The two peaks have a 5% significance, which was difficult to expect before conducting this experiment. This result implies some unknown information transmission.
The results concerning the brain waves of the practitioners as well as their heart beat, hand temperature and skin slectric conduction appear in the following 5 papers of this volume.

Keywords: ki, qi, qigong, sense shielding, suggestion, presentiment, extrasensory, ESP, DMILS, remote action, martial art, toh-ate, taiki, Shintaido

EEG alpha Waves of a Receiver in a Remote Action Experiment-Part II
Kimiko KAWANO, Mikio YAMAMOTO, Hideyuki KOKUBO, Masataka TANAKA,
Tong ZHANG, Tomoko KOKADO and Takao SOMA
A second experimental study during To-ate was carried out following the previous analysis reported in the Journal of ISLIS (Vol.18(2), 2000). Two practitioners were placed in separate rooms and at a time set randomly within 80 seconds (1 trial), one practitioner (sender) emitted qi. The other one (receiver) made a sign with a switch when he sensed the qi. The sender's and receiver's markers were recorded together with their physiological data. In all, 108 trials were done for two days and the receiver's EEGs were analyzed in each 5.12 seconds of four periods; those were, before sending qi, while sending, after sending, and while sensing qi was being received (that is, just before the receiver's marker). At the time of actually receiving qi (while sending), the alpha ratio of the frontal midline (Fz) to the occipital region (O2) was significantly larger than that while sensing (p<0.05). The alpha phase difference between O2 and Fz was distinctly short while sending (vs. while sensing; p<0.0001).

Keywords: EEG, frontal alpha-wave, alpha-phase synchronization, extrasensory perception

Analysis of the Reciever's EEG in Remote Perception Task
Tong ZHANG, Mikio YAMAMOTO, Hideyuki KOKUBO, Kimiko KAWANO,
Masataka TANAKA and Tomoko KOKADO
 In the present experiment, two experienced practitioners of a Japanese martial art were subjects. One acted as a sender while the other acted as a receiver. They were put in separate rooms with communication deprivation to perform a task of "remote action and perception". One run was made up of three successive 80-second trials during which only one 'sending' was performed in double-blinded and randomized conditions. Both physiological changes of the sender and the receiver were measured during the experiment. In this paper, changes of the mean amplitudes of alpha wave and theta wave of the receiver during a period of 10 seconds around the sending time were analyzed at an interval of 1 second. Compared with values of the resting state, statistically significant decreases of theta activity were found in C4 and T6 areas, while statistically significant increases of the alpha wave were found in Fp1, Fp2 and T5 areas. However when compared to values during the period of non-sending, statistically significant changes of alpha wave were found in T5, T6, O1and O2 areas.

Keywords: EEG, alpha activity, theta activity, frontal lobes, mental concentration, martial arts

ECG Analysis in a Remote Action Experiment
Masataka TANAKA, Mikio YAMAMOTO, Hideyuki KOKUBO, Tomoko KOKADO, Tong ZHANG
ECGs of a qi-receiver during To-ate (remote action; an ancient Japanese martial art) were analyzed. Two practitioners were placed in separate rooms which had an electromagnetic shield room for the receiver to cut normal information transfer. At a time set randomly within 80 seconds (1 trial), one practitioner (sender) emitted qi. The other (receiver) attempted to perceive the qi. Their sending time, receiving time and physiology data were recorded. The receiver's ECG R-R intervals were measured. Heart beat fluctuations were analyzed before and after the sending and receiving times. In trials within a 5-second time difference between the sending and receiving times, coefficients of variation of R-R intervals between a 15-second period before and a 15-second period after the sending and receiving times each showed statistical significant.

 Keywords: ECG, R-R interval, coefficient of variation, extrasensory perception

Skin Temperature Changes of Receiver's Laogong on the Left Hand
in Remote Action Experiment
Weizhong CHEN, Hideyuki KOKUBO, Tomoko KOKADO, Tong ZHANG
Trained as a pair for 40 years, two persons were studied in a remote action experiment. What they have trained is a martial art that people train to foresee an attack from partner. The two were separated in two rooms during the experiment, and normal information transmission routes (the senses of sight, hearing etc.) were cut off. The sender emitted "qi of attack" only once during an 80-second trial on double blinded and randomized conditions. A thermistor was used to measure the hand surface temperature at the receiver's left laogong (middle of palm of hand). The difference between the average temperature change before and after transmitting was analyzed. At one second before the transmitting time, the difference for 2 seconds was statistically significant and 1% or less.

Keywords: average skin temperature change, remote action, laogong point, thermistor, hand surface

Analysis of Electrodermal Activity (EDA) in Remote Perception Task
Using Electromagnetic Shield Cage - Part II
Hideyuki KOKUBO, Mikio YAMAMOTO, Kumiko YAMADA, Kimiko KAWANO,
Takao SOMA, Masataka TANAKA, Tong ZHANG and Nobuo FUKUDA
In the present experiment, two professional practitioners of Japanese martial arts were put in separate rooms with communicational deprivation, while the authors measured physiological changes of one of the two, acting as a Receiver, when the other, acting as a Sender, attempted to give "remote action" to the Receiver at a distance. The Receiver was seated in an electromagnetic shielding cage and the Sender performed only one "sending" motion per 80-second trial on double blinded and randomized conditions. The Receiver's skin conductances were sampled at a rate of 200Hz using an exosomatic method (DC 0.5V constant). Results showed the ratio of the Receiver's skin conductance changed at the sending time. Personalities of the subjects were tested by Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory (Y-G test) and Tokyo University Egogram (TEG). Both subjects' personalities were evaluated as D-group (Stable-Active Type) on the Y-G test. The Receiver's personality was evaluated as FC dominant type and the Sender's personality as trapezoid type by TEG.
Keywords: electrodermal activity (EDA), skin conductance change, direct mental interaction with living system (DMILS), anomalous cognition, Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventory (Y-G test), Tokyo University Egogram (TEG), martial arts, Shintaido

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Last Modified: September 13, 2001