International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS)

Journal of International Society of
Life Information Science

Vol.18, No.2, September 2000
ISSN 1341-9226


[Proceedings of The Tenth Symposium of Life Information Science]

Without Peer Review


These abstracts of the articles in the Symposium Proceedings are preliminary reports and they are printed as provided by the authors who have full responsibility for their contents, which have not been edited by the editors of the Journal.

The Effects of Wai Qi on Rats under Stress Based on Urinary Excretion Measurements of Catecholamines

Tomoko ITOH1, Zaiwen SHEN1, Yasuhiro ITOH2, Akira TAMURA1 and Masami ASAYAMA1

1Dept. of Health Sciences, Chukyo Women's University (Aichi, Japan)
1Dept. of Clin. Physiol., School of Health Sci., Fujita Health Univ. (Aichi, Japan)

We have studied the power of Qi scientifically using rats. Rats received Wai Qi during a 4-day period and then we did a stress load test (swimming) and the measured urinary excretion of catecholamines [adrenaline (A), noradrenalin (NA), dopamine (DA)]. For both control and Qi groups the quantity of A increased greatly just after the stress load. As the control group, the quantity of NA increased just after the stress load, but not for the Qi group. In the Qi group, the quantity of DA decreased significantly just after stress load, but not for the control group. As for food-intake, no meaningful difference was seen for five days between both groups, but the weight of the control group clearly increased more than that of Qi group. We suggested that Wai Qi had some influence on the autonomic nervous system.
Qigong, Wai Qi (external Qi), rats, stress, urinary adrenaline, urinary noradrenalin, urinary dopamine

Immune Changes during Cosmic Orbit Meditation of Qigong

Yuzo HIGUCHI1, Yasunori KOTANl1, Hironobu HIGUCHI2, Yukiko MINEGlSHI3, Yukio TANAKA4, Yong Chang YU5 and Shinichiro MOMOSE6

1Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo, Japan)
2College of Medical Sciences, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan)
3Jichi Medical School, School of Nursing (Tochigi, Japan)
4Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Tokyo, Japan)
5International Qigong Association (Tokyo, Japan)
6Momose Hospital (Ohme, Japan)

Six experienced practitioners of qigong who were in good health participated in this experiment. The Yu Method Cosmic Orbit Meditation was selected for the experiment from numerous other static qigong methods. Before and after a 40-minute meditation, the levels of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity and Interleukin (IL)-2 in venous blood were simultaneously measured to study changes. The levels of NK cell activity and IL-2 showed a significant increase when compared to the findings achieved from a study conducted on a group of subjects who had no experience in qigong meditation. It became clear that Qigong Cosmic Orbit Meditation was effective in enhancing the level of immune capacity.
Cosmic Orbit Meditation, NK cell activity, IL-2

Effects of Qigong on the Concentration of Free Radicals in Blood

Mignon PARK1, Youngho PARK1, Sukyun CHANG1, Changhoon LEE1 and Jin XIANGKUI2

1Dept. of Electronic Eng., Yonsei University (Seoul, Korea)
2Dept. of Physical Education, Jilin University (Changchun, China)

The fact that free radicals (superoxides) in the human body are related to cancer, aging phenomena, and many kinds of diseases of adults has been well known from recent research. In order to investigate the variation of free radicals in the whole blood of the human body before and after qigong treatment from a qigong master, the concentration of free radicals was measured by ultra-weak chemiluminescence method. Measurements were performed for healthy people and patient group with several kinds of diseases, that is, cancers including solid tumors and lymphadenoma, heart disease and schizophrenia. The concentrations of free radicals were reduced remarkably through qigong treatment for all subject.
free (oxygen) radical, qi-gong, healing, cancer, chemiluminescence

[Lecture by ISLIS President]

Promotion of "Human Potential Science"


President, International Society of Life Information Science (ISLIS)
(National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan)

Scientific research on "human potential" is essential to nurturing human abilities, enhancement of natural healing power, promotion of preventive medicine and integrated healthcare, innovations of science and technology, and realization of mental richness of society and individuals. However, "human potential" research has been put outside the mainstream of science, which has been targeted primarily on a material world. Paradigm shift is important for the twenty-first century; therefore, various activities have been carried out. From fiscal year 2000, the Japanese Government has begun to budget for creation of a new paradigm. The research themes are listed in the Appendix. In order for this field to be successful in the future, foundation of a special organization, provisionally called "the Human Potential Science Institute" (Human PSI), is urgently needed. "Human Potential Science" becomes more and more important. The author hopes that the interdisciplinary and international wisdom will be gathered for this field and the ISLIS.
paradigm shift, human potential, latent power, potential power, qigong, qi, alternative medicine, complementary medicine, traditional medicine

Power Spectral Analysis of R-R Interval Variability during Zazen

Yukiko MINEGISHI1, Tsuyoshi WATANABE2 and Yuzo HIGUCHI3

1Jichi Medical School, School of Nursing (Tochigi, Japan)
2Kokushikan University (Tokyo, Japan)
3Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo, Japan)

This study was designed to evaluate the influence on autonomic nervous activity caused by "zazen" which is one kind of mental and physical traing method. Seven monks belonging to the Soto-shu Sect rested for 40 min. and practiced zazen for 40min. in one day. Then R-R interval variability was evaluated by power spectral analysis. In the two tests, the power spectrum in the high frequency band (HF) during zazen was higher than resting but not significantly, and the ratio of the low frequency band to the high frequency band (LF/HF) during resting was higher than during zazen but not significantly, and the slope of 1/fbeta fluctuation during zazen was significantly more gentle than resting. These results indicated the parasympathetic nervous system was more activated during zazen than during resting.
zazen, power spectral analysis, R-R interval variability, parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system, slope of 1/fbeta fluctuation

Physiological Measurements during Qigong Training (II)

Masataka TANAKA1,2, Hideyuki KOKUBO1,2, Tomoko KOKADO1, Mikio YAMAMOTO1, Kimiko KAWANO3,1 and Takao Soma4,1

1National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2The Institute for Future Technology (Tokyo, Japan)
3Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
4Tokyo Metropolitan College (Tokyo, Japan)

The authors have previously noted qigong beginners show physiological changes during qigong training. Physiological measurements were made for two years on subjects who had learned qigong in a qigong school for two months. Items studied were foot massage, standing posture qigong and Soubikou (a dynamic qigong) each with the eyes closed and the eyes opened. Measurement items were respiration patterns and ECGs (electrocardiograms). Statistical tests were done for three subjects for two years to look for a correlation between their values and training months, and differences when the eyes were closed and opened on respiration time and heart rate. Analysis data showed significant extensions of inspiration time during foot massage with the eyes opened in all three subjects. Similar tendencies were seen for other experiment items.
ECG, HR, respiration time, inspiration time, expiration time, qigong

EEG Alpha Waves of a Receiver in a Remote Action Experiment

Kimiko KAWANO1,2, Mikio YAMAMOTO2, Hideyuki KOKUBO2,3, Masataka TANAKA2,3, Tong ZHANG2,3, Dmitri V. PARKHOMTCHOUK2, Tomoko KOKADO2, Hirotaka NAKAMURA2,3, Takao SOMA4,2

1Centre for Informatics and Sciences, Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)
2National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
3The Institute for Future Technology (Tokyo, Japan) 
4Tokyo Metropolitan College (Tokyo, Japan)

EEGs of a qi-receiver during To-ate (remote action; an ancient Japanese martial art) were analyzed. Two practitioners were placed in separate rooms which had an electromagnetic shield room for the receiver. At a time set randomly within 80 seconds (1 trial), one practitioner (sender) emitted qi. The other one (receiver) made a sign with a switch when he sensed the qi. One run consisted of three trials and in total 15 runs (45 trials) were done with short intermissions between each run. The receiver's EEGs were analyzed in each 5.12 seconds of 4 periods; those were, before sending qi, during sending, after sending and before sensing qi was being received. At the time of actually receiveing qi (during sending), alpha waves appeared diffusely toward the frontal area and those alpha waves were synchronized with the occipital ones in this phase more than those while the receiver sensed qi was being received.
EEG, alpha-wave, frontal, alpha-phase synchronization, extrasensory perception

An Experiment on Cerebral Activity during Visual Imagery

Tong ZHANG1,2, Hideaki SAKAIDA3 , Kimiko KAWANO4,1, Mikio YAMAMOTO1 and Yoshio MACHI3

1National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2The Institute for Future Technology (Tokyo, Japan)
3Tokyo Denki University (Tokyo, Japan)
4Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)

We planned an experiment on visual imagery which is widely used in qigong and meditation training. We gave a task of an indicated image of a flower and measured the cerebral activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during it in a task-rest. Compared with the control condition, we saw Area 17 of the right side are activated.
attention, visual imagery, Broadmann 17 area, fMRI

The Study of Meditation and Image Evocation Using Functional MRI

Yoshihiro UEDA1, Kyoichi KUROIWA1, Hideyuki ZENJYU1, Tayo KATANO1, Setsuko KAME1, Hitoshi KASHIBA1, Toshio YANAGIDA2, Yuri KITAMURA2, Yoshitetsu OSHIRO2, Yasuhiro TOKIMOTO3 and Tamotsu NOMURA4

1Kansai College of Oriental Medicine (Osaka, Japan)
2Dept. of Physiology and Medical Biosignaling,
  Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Osaka, Japan)
3Dept. of Radiology, Ishikawa Hospital (Himeji, Japan)

Acupressure stimulation of changing intensity was given on the hoku (note : acupoint, LI4) followed by remembering a past stimulation image. Then the activated state of the brain was examined with functional MRI (f-MRI). The acupressure stimulation with strong pain activated the bilateral secondary sensory area, parietal lobes, thalamus and insula, and also activated the visual area of some people. When these acupressure stimuli were recalled in the mind, the signal intensity at the secondary sensory area decreased, and the signal at the visual area and temporal lobes increased. The strong pinching stimulation (severe pain) on the skin at the hoku did not activate the brain as widely as the acupressure stimulation did. In an experiment to send qi from the left index finger tip to the laokung (note: acupoint, PC8) of the right hand palm, the restricted parts of the right sensory area and the right basal ganglia were activated. "Meditation" and "Siaozhoutian" methods induced no activation.
f- MRI, healing, image, meditation, brain function, pain, thalamus

Super-Delayed Luminescence from Biological Tissues


National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)

In this paper we review the experimental results of biophoton delayed luminescence (DL) research and propose a model based on properties of multiphonon energy transfer that explains nearly all known features of DL. Typically, DL is a long (from seconds to hours contrary to the well know luminescence from simple compounds which takes only nanoseconds) decay of intensity after initial light irradiation, and in most cases has very close to hyperbolical law dependence. We proposed the scheme for DL imaging and state that DL has a high diagnostic value, since it differs significantly for damaged tissues.
biophoton, hyperbolic decay, delayed luminescence, fractal organization, multiphonon energy transfer

Biophoton and Temperature Changes of Human Hand during Qigong

Hirotaka NAKAMURA1,2, Hideyuki KOKUBO1,2, Dmitri V. PARKHOMTCHOUK1, Wheizhong CHEN1,2, Masataka TANAKA1,2, Tong ZHANG1,2, Tomoko KOKADO1, Mikio YAMAMOTO1 and Nobuo FUKUDA1

1National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan)
2The Institute for Future Technology (Tokyo, Japan)

From the studies of the living biological systems, it is known that they emit light (biophotons) of a very weak intensity. However, the behavior of the biophoton emission at the time of qigong has not been clarified. In this report, the authors measured biophotons emitted from the human hand and temperatures of the hand surface by thermograph, in order to clarify the correlation of qigong, biophotons, and a skin surface temperature. Although substances usually have an increase of photon intensity when temperature rises, in this experiment, the drop of the skin surface temperature during qigong and an increase of biophoton emission intensity were observed.
qigong, biophoton, temperature, hand surface, thermography

Sustaining Faculty of Living Functions and Its Biophoton Observation

Tsutomu YANAGAWA, Hiroyuki SAKAGUCHI, Masahiro UENO and Kazuo NITTA

Life Science Labs., MOA Health Science Foundation (Tokyo, Japan)

The authors focus on fluids of living bodies. Wounds in plants are thought to show biophoton emission, however, this report shows that sap itself radiates biophotons rather than the wound. The number of sap biophotons changes dependent on living state conditions. A difference in sustaining faculty of living functions may appear in the number of the sap photons. In the case of animals, their body fluids correspond to sap in plants. The human body shows remarkable photon emissions from abnormal areas, such as wounds, sites of skin diseases, and other injuries affecting some part of skin surface. Moreover, the authors find for the first time that thermal stimulation with moxa leads the human body to radiate biophotons. As the biophoton emission intensifies after moxa, an attempt is made to detect changes in the human body. After moxa, the photon numbers and the body temperature are observed as a time chart before and after healing in Okada's manner. In contrast with the decreasing photon number, the temperature increases during the healing. There is not only a simple energy change, but also some healing effect to the human body.
biophoton, thermography, corona discharge photography, sap, body fluid, moxa, natural farming, healing in Okada's manner, image intensifier

[ Special Lecture 1 ]

Measurement of Biophoton from Human Body


Professor Emeritus, Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan)

Living organisms spontaneously emit an extremely weak form of light often referred to as biophoton emission. In the present report, we describe the measurement and characterization of biophoton emission from living samples of human origin and the surface of the human body under various physiological conditions. Our experimental results suggest that biophoton emission carries valuable biomedical information on the states of the human body. The potential usefulness of biophoton events as a noninvasive means for diagnostic purposes is explored and some results of the experiment in connection with Qi-gong therapy and acupuncture are also reported.
ultraweak light emission, biophoton, photon counting detection, two-dimensional photon counting imaging, human body surface, Qi-gong, acupuncture

Quantitative Evaluations of Health Promotion Methods
Using Peripheral Blood Flow (1)

Shigenori SHIROUZU1, Hisanobu SUGANO1 and Yasunori NOTO2

1MOA Health Science Foundation
2ICE (Institute of Chaos Engineering) Inc.

Tsuda et al. reported chaotic behavior of human finger photoplethysmograms (FPPs) and proposed the possibility of shape of the FPP attractor an indicator of mental and physical condition of subjects. To perform a quantitative evaluation, a quantity characterizing the of attractor shape was extracted. Furthermore, to measure the process of changing attractor shapes due to health promotion methods, a successive measuring system of attractors was developed. Basic results for quantitative evaluation obtained with this system were described.
finger photoplethysmogram, health degree, health promoting, aging, mental stress, physical strength

Comparison of Equivalent Admittance on the Palms Before and After Exercise or Meditation

Shoji SUZUKI1, kazuhide UESUGI1, Yayoi NAKABAYASHI1, Yoshinori ADACHI2 and Yasukazu SEIKI1

1Kumamoto National College of Technology (Kumamoto, Japan)
2College of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu University (Kasugai, Japan)

An improved system to measure the equivalent admittance on the palms is proposed. The equivalent admittance is determined by measuring the current flow from the Laogong when alternating voltages are applied at the wrists. The obtained equivalent admittances are simulated by the improved simple CR circuit quite well. The state changes of the subject are clearly observed by the changes of C and R values in this system.
equivalent admittance, palms, exercise, meditation, Chinese medicine 

Effects of EQR Irradiation on Physical Stamina, Tumor and Inflammation for Disease Models in Mice and Rats

Takashi AOKI1, Susumu ARAHATA2, Hideyuki SHINNABE2, Tomohiko HASEGAWA3 and Mineo KUNIHARA3

1College of Engineering, Chubu University (Aichi, Japan)
2ME System Development Department, Nippon Sigmax Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan)
3Pharmacology unit, Nippon Experimental Medical Research Institute Co., Ltd. (Gunma, Japan)

Effects of EQR (emission from quartz resonance) irradiation on disease models in mice and rats were determined in terms of physical stamina, tumor growth and inflammation changes. Forced swimming tests for rats showed that the EQR irradiation had no effect on their immobile time in the water. A rotating rod test for food-restricted rats revealed that the EQR irradiation prolonged the time in which they did not drop from the rotating rod. The EQR irradiation had a strong tendency to suppress proliferation of sarcoma 180 tumor cells in BDF1 mice. The irradiation markedly inhibited carrageenin-induced foot edema in rats. For an adjuvant arthritic model in rats, the irradiation also inhibited swelling of the fore paws, iridocyclitis, ear nodules and balanitis, although it had no effects on swelling of inflammatory hindpaws and flexion pain of the hindpaw ankle. The authors postulate that the above-described effects arise because the EQR wave affects the inflammation system, i.e. the immune system in a wide sense.
EQR irradiation, physical stamina, tumor, inflammation, edema, animal disease models, immune system

Study of Pulse Wave Change for Different Kinds of Breathing

Yoshinori ADACHl1 and Takashi AOKI2

1College of Business Administration and Information Science, Chubu University (Kasugai, Japan)
2College of Engineering, Chubu University (Kasugai, Japan)

Sphygmopalpation occupies an important position in Chinese medicine as a diagnostic tool. But because of the pulse wave instability, the effectiveness is experiential and has not been clarified yet. It is known that the pulse number fluctuates due to motion and psychological effects, but whether the waveform changes with this is not clear. In this study, the effect of different breathing types on the pulse wave was examined, and a guideline for the sphygmopalpation method was obtained.
pulse diagnosis, breathing, pulse wave, Chinese medicine

[ Special Lecture 2 ]

Dissociative Disorder

Minshuku KOH, Yoshiko NISHIMATSU and Shunkichi ENDO

Department of Psychiatry, Nippon Medical School (Tokyo, Japan)

Dissociative disorder is identified as a 'partial or complete loss of the normal integration between memories of the past, awareness of identity and immediate sensations, and control of bodily movements'(ICD-10). The dissociative disorders in ICD-10 include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, dissociative stupor, trance and possession disorders, and multiple personality disorder. We report on three patients who met ICD-10 criteria for dissociative disorders: dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, and multiple personality disorder. Two patients were women and sexual conflict was the initial trigger; case 1 hesitated to break with her married boyfriend and case 3 denied she would divorce her husband. Case 2 was a man who faced a crisis that he might loose his credit. Dissociation arose as a mechanism for all three patients against their conflictual state. Finally all three patients could solve their conflicts without using dissociative defense. Case 1 separated from her boyfriend and case 3 decided to divorce her husband, case 2 recognized his trouble was not so severe.
dissociative disorder, dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, multiple personality disorder (dissociative identity disorder), conflict

Physiological Measurements for Reflexology Foot Massage

Yoshio MACHI1, Chao LIU1 and Maki FUJITA2

1Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Denki University (Tokyo, JAPAN)
2Japan Reflexorogy Association Maki Fujita Reflexology School (Tokyo, JAPAN)

We analyzed the effect of Reflexology foot sole massage in our laboratory from a physiological point of view. Based on physiological data we concluded that the subjects were relaxed. We thought that this method stimulated acupuncture points on the sole of the foot, but it also showed good physiological effects.
ECG, blood pressure, respiration, SpO2, blood flow, carbon dioxide density, and EEG

The Physiological Differences of One Qi Gong Master's Nei Gong, Dong Gong and Wai Qi (Healing with Qi)

Chao LIU1, Yoshio MACHI1 and Yong-Xiang ZHANG2

1Faculty of Engineering Tokyo Denki University (Tokyo, Japan)
2The Chinese School of Qi Master (Tokyo, Japan)

In this paper, we describe the physiological differences in one Qi master's Nei Gong and Dong Gong. We also discuss the Qi master's physiological phenomena when he practiced healing with his eyes open and his eyes closed. From the measurement data we look at the difference of Nei Gong and Dong Gong from a physiological standpoint. Here we discuss results of the ECG, PPG, GSR, L.F./H.F. measurements etc. The clear results are:
1.The breathing period of Nei Gong (10s) is longer than Dong Gong (2s).
2.The Qi master's L.F./H.F. during Nei Gong (12), Dong Gong (2), indicate which movements are in the quiet state and which are quiet during movements in his inner body. It is one of the techniques in training Qi. It is said that Nei Dong Wai Jing is the inverse of Wai Dong Nei Jing.
3.For the purpose of healing, there are physiological differences between having his eyes open or not.
4.After a man received Qi from the master, the man's pressure propagation time is shortened, showing that his peripheral circulation changes to a dominant state.
Nei Qi, Wai Qi, L.F./H.F., autonomic sympathetic system, propagation time and accelerated plethysmogram

Imaging Findings of the Brain After Performing Yoga: A PET study

Laxmi Narayan SINGH, Masatoshi ENDO, Keiichiro YAMAGUCHI, Masayasu MIYAKE, Shoichi WATANUKI, Myeong Gi JEONG and Masatoshi ITOH

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University

We used 18F-FDG and PET modality to examine activation or deactivation of the neural substrates after subjects performed Hatha Yoga. Seven experienced yoga practitioners participated in our study and all practiced fifteen selected Asanas (Postures of Yoga) for an hour after the oral ingestion of 37 MBq (1 mCi) of 18F-FDG. Then whole brain imaging was performed. Blood pressure was also monitored before and after practicing Yoga. The data were analysed using statistical software, SPM 96 and two contrasts such as Yoga minus (-) Control and Control-Yoga, were taken into consideration. During Yoga-Control the imaging findings showed increased activation in the bilateral sensori-motor area. Control-Yoga showed deactivation in a wide range of deep neural substrates of the bilateral brain hemisphere such as inferior and medial frontal lobes, temporal lobes, parts of the limbic system, and cerebellum. We conclude form the PET findings that there was an over all relaxation of the brain leading to the quiescent state of mind.
PET, Oral FDG, Yoga, Cerebral Metabolism, Meditation

A Study on the Relationships between alpha-waves and Business Performance (Part II)
- Focusing on the possibility of a good cycle of the appearance of Alpha-waves and good business performance -

Akiyoshi OSHIMA

WORD Laboratories Inc. (Urayasu, Japan)

Part 1 of this study examined if the appearance of alpha-waves in the morning would enhance business performance of that day, or if good business performance would increase alpha-waves for that day's evening. The latter tendency was determined stronger. Meanwhile, a pattern in which the appearance of alpha-waves in the morning resulted in good business performance, which then led to the high alpha-wave values in the evening, also occurred once in a while. In Part II, conditions leading to this pattern were examined through experiments. Based on the results, factors enhancing business performance were also investigated. It was found that good results would be achieved by (1) making and carrying out work plans that will lead to impressive results and (2) excluding factors obstructing the progress of work plans. Of them, (1) was found to have a greater impact on enhancing business performance.
alpha-wave, business, performance, planning, enjoyment

Analysis of Intellectual Resonance (or Synchronization) Using a Card Game (8) Spatially Asymmetrical Property of Interactions

Masahiro KURITA

Department of lnternal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo (Tokyo, Japan)

In a series of previous studies, we have established a method to quantitatively analyze intellectual resonance based on a concrete message. This method allows us to analyze how and to what extent intellectual resonance occurs in a group, through the use of digital information such as numbers and characters. In this method, participants take their seats and fill out special cards according to game instructions. The degree of coincidence among neighboring participants is then examined and scores are assigned to the results. The scores are evaluated using mathematical tools within a probability theory framework. We named this trial Synchro-X. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the spatially asymmetrical property of coincidences which occurred among pairs of humans. We analyzed the data of 51 trials conducted by 598 participants in 17 groups. The total score was divided into four subscores according to seat arrangement of the matched pairs as follows: 1) left and right direction (LR); 2) right anterior and left posterior oblique directions (RO); 3) left anterior and right posterior oblique directions (LO); and 4) anterior and posterior direction (AP). The total score was 2,126. The classified subscores for LR, RO, LO, and AP were 630, 458, 470, and 568, respectively (1). Theoretically calculated expected values for LR, RO, LO, and AP were 571, 576, 490, and 489, respectively (2). A quality test of fit between (1) and (2) using the chi-square distribution negated the null hypothesis that LR=RO=LO=AP (p<0.03). More detailed chi-square tests revealed that LR>AP (p<0.05), LR>RO (p<0.007), LR>LO (p<0.02), and that there were no significant differences between RO, LO, and AP. The above results suggest that the intellectual functions of two humans sitting in neighboring seats have a subconscious interaction, and that a spatially asymmetrical property exists in the interaction.
synchronization, resonance, card game, information transfer, synchro-X, subconsciousness, spatial asymmetry, direction

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